European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 4

August 2013

Volume 38, Issue 4

Pages 2491–2648


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    1. Does prenatal nicotine exposure alter the brain's response to nicotine in adolescence? A neuroanatomical analysis (pages 2491–2503)

      R. Mychasiuk, A. Muhammad, C. Carroll and B. Kolb

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12245

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      Prenatal nicotine exposure has been associated with many negative outcomes including increased risk for nicotine addiction in adulthood. In this study we examined neuroanatomical changes that occurred in response to nicotine exposure in the prenatal period and in adolescence. Although combined exposure to nicotine at both time points was rarely additive; nicotine administration in adolescence profoundly altered neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity in the brain regions examined.

    2. Rostroventrolateral medulla neurons with commissural projections provide input to sympathetic premotor neurons: anatomical and functional evidence (pages 2504–2515)

      Anita Turner, Natasha Kumar, Melissa Farnham, Mandy Lung, Paul Pilowsky and Simon McMullan

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12232

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      A phenotypically diverse population projects from the pressor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla to its analogue in the contralateral brainstem. These neurons are spontaneously active, have a discharge correlated with sympathetic nerve activity, and form close appositions with sympathetic premotor neurons. These neurons may therefore represent a source of ongoing excitatory input to sympathetic premotor neurons.

    3. Corticotropin-releasing factor infusion into nucleus incertus suppresses medial prefrontal cortical activity and hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical long-term potentiation (pages 2516–2525)

      Usman Farooq, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Shalini Sukumaran, You Wu, Wei Hao Tan and Gavin Stewart Dawe

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12242

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      Activation of the nucleus incertus by electrical stimulation, CRF infusion or stress is likely to attenuate medial prefrontal cortical activity and suppress hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical LTP.

    4. Phase coding by grid cells in unconstrained environments: two-dimensional phase precession (pages 2526–2541)

      Jason R. Climer, Ehren L. Newman and Michael E. Hasselmo

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12256

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      Experimental Examples of Precession using the Omnidirectional Pass Index. (A) Example histology showing tetrode tracks targeted at medial entorhinal cortex. (B) Local field potential data recorded in our lab is shown in black. Top is the unfiltered trace, bottom is filtered (6–10 Hz). Red tick marks indicate the firing of a single grid cell as the animal moves in and out of grid fields. (C-F) Example plots from a precessing grid cell from our experimental data: (C) Rate map, (D) Trajectory with spikes colored by the pass index at each spike, (E) Scatter plot of the LFP theta phase vs. the pass index. Correlation coefficients (rho), significance (p), and slopes (s, in degrees/pass) indicated. (F) Occupancy-normalized rate maps of the scatter plot in E.

    5. Transition in subicular burst firing neurons from epileptiform activity to suppressed state by feedforward inhibition (pages 2542–2556)

      Nirnath Sah and Sujit K. Sikdar

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12262

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      Induction of epileptic activity is characterized by several fast and slow temporal transitions due to intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Subiculum gates information from the hippocampus to the entorhinal cortex. We demonstrate the transition from an epileptic state to suppressed state in subicular pyramidal neurons in brain slice upon prolonged epileptogenic stimulus and ascribe it to the feedforward inhibition where local fast spiking interneurons may be involved in phasic and tonic inhibition.

    6. Direction-specific adaptation of motion-onset auditory evoked potentials (pages 2557–2565)

      Ramona Grzeschik, Martin Böckmann-Barthel, Roland Mühler, Jesko L. Verhey and Michael B. Hoffmann

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12264

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      Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to motion-onset are dominated by a fronto-central complex, with a change-negative (cN1) and -positive (cP2) component. Here the contribution of veridical motion detectors to motion-onset AEPs was investigated.

    7. Differential responses of circadian Per2 rhythms in cultured slices of discrete brain areas from rats showing internal desynchronisation by methamphetamine (pages 2566–2571)

      Akiyo Natsubori, Ken-ichi Honma and Sato Honma

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12265

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      Circadian behavior rhythms in rats were desynchronised from light-dark cycles by chronic treatment with methamphetamine (MAP). In parallel with this, circadian oscillators in the olfactory bulb (OB), parietal cortex (PC) and substantia nigra (SN) were differentially desynchronised from the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The extra-SCN oscillators in these structures of the brain dopaminergic system are suggested to be re-organised to build into the MAP-induced oscillator.


    1. Top of page
    1. Development of behavioral preferences for the optimal choice following unexpected reward omission is mediated by a reduction of D2-like receptor tone in the nucleus accumbens (pages 2572–2588)

      Kirsten A. Porter-Stransky, Jillian L. Seiler, Jeremy J. Day and Brandon J. Aragona

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12253

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      This study investigates the role of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens in altering behavior in response to the omission of an expected reward. Similarly to controls, multiple doses of a D1-like receptor agonist, D1-like receptor antagonist, and D2-like receptor antagonist do not prevent subjects from developing a robust behavioral preference for the rewarded lever and avoiding the omitted-reward lever during the first session of reward omission. However, the D2-like agonist quinpirole dose-dependently blocks a behavioral preference for the rewarded lever, suggesting that reductions in D2-like receptor tone are necessary for altering behavior away from an aversive option and toward the optimal choice.

    2. Effects of ventral striatal lesions on first- and second-order appetitive conditioning (pages 2589–2599)

      Michael A. McDannald, Barry Setlow and Peter C. Holland

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12255

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      Rats with bilateral lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens failed to acquire Pavlovian second-order conditioning to auditory stimuli paired with visual stimuli that had previously received first-order pairings with food. This deficit in second-order conditioning was specific to learning driven by incentive properties of the first-order cues, and was observed whether the first-order training had occurred prior to or after lesion surgery.

    3. Differential androgen receptor expression and DNA methylation state in striatum song nucleus Area X between wild and domesticated songbird strains (pages 2600–2610)

      Kazuhiro Wada, Shin Hayase, Raimu Imai, Chihiro Mori, Masahiko Kobayashi, Wan-chun Liu, Miki Takahasi and Kazuo Okanoya

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12258

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      AR was differentially expressed in striatum Area X GABAergic neurons between wild and domesticated songbird strains having different learned vocal phenotypes. Differences in AR expression were correlated with a song feature related to inter-syllable duration. DNA methylation in AR also differed between strains and within domesticated populations. These results provide insight into the molecular basis of behavioral evolution through the regulation of epigenetic modification.

    4. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons (pages 2611–2620)

      Mouna Maroun, Pericles J. Ioannides, Krista L. Bergman, Alexandra Kavushansky, Andrew Holmes and Cara L. Wellman

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12259

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      Acute stress impaired extinction (A) and produced dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala (BLA) pyramidal neurons (B). Stress-induced changes in morphology were lateralized to the right hemisphere, whereas behavioral testing produced dendritic retraction in the left hemisphere (C). Right-hemisphere dendritic retraction correlated with extinction deficits (D). Thus, learning and stress produced dissociable changes in BLA morphology. BLA dendritic and synaptic remodeling could contribute to stress-induced impairments in extinction and stress-related disorders.

    5. Serotonin 1A auto-receptors are not sufficient to modulate anxiety in mice (pages 2621–2627)

      Lukasz Piszczek, Kevin Schlax, Anna Wyrzykowska, Agnieszka Piszczek, Enrica Audero and Cornelius Thilo Gross

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12260

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      Mice lacking the serotonin 1A receptor (Htr1a) show elevated avoidance of novel open spaces, suggesting that this receptor plays a role in modulating anxiety behavior. Here we show that mice carrying a transgene rescuing receptor expression exclusively in serotonin neurons (Htr1aRR mice) were not able to restore wild-type anxiety behavior. These findings can be reconciled if Htr1a autoreceptors and heteroreceptors modulate anxiety in a manner that depends on each other.

    6. Paradoxical tolerance to cocaine after initial supersensitivity in drug-use-prone animals (pages 2628–2636)

      Mark J. Ferris, Erin S. Calipari, James R. Melchior, David C. S. Roberts, Rodrigo A. España and Sara R. Jones

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12266

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      There is great interest in outlining biological factors and behavioral characteristics that either predispose or predict vulnerability to substance use disorders. We used cocaine self-administration under a fixed-ratio one schedule followed by fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices to measure sub-second DA release and uptake parameters in drug-use prone and resistant phenotypes. We show a supersensitivity in the ability of cocaine to inhibit dopamine uptake following acute administration in animals with higher locomotor response to a novel environment. Following a history of cocaine self-administration, however, tolerance in the ability of cocaine to inhibit dopamine uptake coexists with a behavioral phenotype that is defined by increased preoccupation with cocaine as measured by rapid acquisition and early high intake.

    7. Dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum exhibit distinct phasic neuronal activity during alcohol self-administration in rats (pages 2637–2648)

      Rebecca R. Fanelli, Jeffrey T. Klein, Rebecca M. Reese and Donita L. Robinson

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12271

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      To examine the role of dorsal striatal subregions in alcohol-motivated behavior, we recorded neuronal activity in rats self-administering alcohol on different reinforcement schedules that produced goal-directed or habitual behavior. Dorsomedial striatum preferentially responded to alcohol-associated cues, while dorsolateral responses were more associated with motor output. This distinction was diminished in habit-trained rats, which may be a neurophysiologic reflection of habitual behavior.