European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 6

September 2013

Volume 38, Issue 6

Pages 2812–2972

  1. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. NEUROSYSTEMS
    3. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. Gustatory modulation of the responses of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis neurons to noxious stimulation of the tongue in rats (pages 2812–2822)

      Yves Boucher, Rufino Felizardo, Amanda H. Klein, Mirela I. Carstens and Earl Carstens

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12282

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      Lingual application of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and NaCl inhibited nociceptive responses of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) neurons in a manner not requiring intact gustatory nerves (chorda tympani = CT). Neither MSG, NaCl nor γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affected noxious chemically-evoked responses of trigeminal ganglion cells. We speculate that MSG and NaCl excite type I/II taste receptor cells that release ATP to excite type III (presynaptic) taste receptor cells, which in turn excite CT fibers via 5-HT and also release some mediator other than GABA that inhibits nearby perigemmal trigeminal nociceptive nerve endings.

    2. Contributions of retinal direction-selective ganglion cells to optokinetic responses in mice (pages 2823–2831)

      Yuko Sugita, Kenichiro Miura, Fumiyuki Araki, Takahisa Furukawa and Kenji Kawano

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12284

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      In the mouse retina, there are two groups of direction selective ganglion cells, ON and ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells. By recording optokinetic responses (OKRs) of mutant mice with dysfunctional ON-bipolar cells that have a functional obstruction of transmission to ON direction selective ganglion cells, we show that ON direction selective ganglion cells contribute to both initial and late OKRs, whereas ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells contribute to OKRs only transiently.

    3. Regional circadian period difference in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the mammalian circadian center (pages 2832–2841)

      Satoshi Koinuma, Takeshi Asakawa, Mamoru Nagano, Keiichi Furukawa, Mitsugu Sujino, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Seiichi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Yagita and Yasufumi Shigeyoshi

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12308

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      We disrupted the intercellular coupling among oscillating neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the mammalian circadian center. The treatment by forskolin divided the SCN into two regions: A region with periods shorter than 24 h (SPR) and another with periods longer than 24 h (LPR). The SPR corresponded well with the region in which the SCN phase wave is generated. A numerical simulation suggested that the coexistance of SPR and LPR generates the phase wave in the SCN.

    4. Neuropeptidergic input pathways to the circadian pacemaker center of the Madeira cockroach analysed with an improved injection technique (pages 2842–2852)

      Julia Schulze, Thomas Schendzielorz, Susanne Neupert, Reinhard Predel and Monika Stengl

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12285

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      Light entrainment pathways synchronize the circadian clock of almost all species of the animal and plant kingdom to the daily light dark cycle. In the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae the circadian clock is located to the accessory medulla of the brain's optic lobes.

    5. unc5c haploinsufficient phenotype: striking similarities with the dcc haploinsufficiency model (pages 2853–2863)

      Meagan L. Auger, Ewoud R. E. Schmidt, Colleen Manitt, Greg Dal-Bo, R. Jeroen Pasterkamp and Cecilia Flores

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12270

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      Here we demonstrate selective expression of unc5 homolog c mRNA by dopamine neurons in adulthood and show that adult mice that develop with reduced UNC5C protein exhibit an increase in mPFC tyrosine hydroxylase expression, selectively, and protection against amphetamine-induced locomotion, but only after adolescence.

    6. Synchronisation hubs in the visual cortex may arise from strong rhythmic inhibition during gamma oscillations (pages 2864–2883)

      Stefanos E. Folias, Shan Yu, Abigail Snyder, Danko Nikolić and Jonathan E. Rubin

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12287

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      Recordings from cat area 17 during gamma oscillations reveal a positive correlation between each unit's orientation selectivity, strength of oscillations, and propensity towards synchronisation with other units, with ‘synchronisation hubs’ denoting the most promiscuous synchronisers. Using a computational model, we demonstrate that variations in the strength of rhythmic inhibitory inputs can account for the correlations between these three properties and the formation of synchronisation hubs.

    7. The electrophysiological time course of somatosensory spatial remapping: vision of the hands modulates effects of posture on somatosensory evoked potentials (pages 2884–2892)

      Silvia Rigato, Andrew J. Bremner, Luke Mason, Alan Pickering, Rob Davis and José van Velzen

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12292

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      We investigated the electrophysiological correlates of somatosensory processing under different arm postures by recording event-related potentials at frontal, central, and centroparietal sites during tactile stimulation of the hands. Short series of 200 ms vibrotactile stimuli were presented to the palms of the participants' hands, one hand at a time, in either uncrossed- or crossed-hands postures.

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      Behavioural and neurophysiological markers reveal differential sensitivity to homeostatic interactions between centrally and peripherally applied passive stimulation (pages 2893–2901)

      M. A. Gatica Tossi, P. Stude, P. Schwenkreis, M. Tegenthoff and H. R. Dinse

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12293

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      We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with subsequent repetitive sensory stimulation using intermittent high-frequency stimulation (iHFS) to demonstrate homeostatic interaction in somatosensory system. Combining tactile acuity assessment with measuring cortical excitability via somatosensory evoked potential recording after paired median nerve stimulation our data suggest that both measures of cortical plasticity were differentially susceptible to homeostatic interactions.

    9. The resting-state neurovascular coupling relationship: rapid changes in spontaneous neural activity in the somatosensory cortex are associated with haemodynamic fluctuations that resemble stimulus-evoked haemodynamics (pages 2902–2916)

      Michael Bruyns-Haylett, Sam Harris, Luke Boorman, Ying Zheng, Jason Berwick and Myles Jones

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12295

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      Time points of neural events in spontaneous cortical neural activity were used for selecting epochs of the accompanying hemodynamics measured with optical imaging spectroscopy. Averaged epochs of resting state hemodynamic fluctuations resembling the temporal profile of stimulus evoked hemodynamics could be found following current sinks and post peaks in neural activity filtered into specific EEG frequency bands (Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma).

    10. An integrator circuit in cerebellar cortex (pages 2917–2932)

      Reinoud Maex and Volker Steuber

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12272

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      A computational model of cerebellar cortex predicts that Purkinje cells can, at simple-spike rates < 40 per s, generate tonic responses lasting seconds to tens of seconds. These tonic responses are maintained by the amplification of subthreshold EPSPs by a somatic window sodium current. The resulting graded persistent activity endows Purkinje cells with the functionality of a neural integrator, whose time-constant can be further enhanced by reciprocal coupling through recurrent axon collaterals.

  2. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    1. Top of page
    2. NEUROSYSTEMS
    3. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. The effect of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease on human visuomotor learning (pages 2933–2940)

      Juan Manuel Gutierrez-Garralda, Pablo Moreno-Briseño, Marie-Catherine Boll, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Aurelio Campos-Romo, Rosalinda Diaz and Juan Fernandez-Ruiz

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12288

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      Error-based learning models cannot fully explain human visuomotor learning. (A) We have suggested that it can be dissociated in one dependent on error signal feedback and another that can lead to improvement without using the error signal. Here we tested in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease patients if basal ganglia lesions disrupt non-error based sensorimotor learning while leaving error-based learning unaffected. (B) The results show a dissociation between their normal performance on error-based learning and the impaired performance on the non-error based learning.

    2. From gene to brain to behavior: schizophrenia-associated variation in AMBRA1 alters impulsivity-related traits (pages 2941–2945)

      Angela Heinrich, Frauke Nees, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Jelka Tzschoppe, Sandra Meier, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Mira Fauth-Bühler, Sabina Steiner, Christiane Bach, Luise Poustka, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J. Barker, Christian Büchel, Patricia J. Conrod, Hugh Garavan, Jürgen Gallinat, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Eva Loth, Karl Mann, Eric Artiges, Tomáš Paus, Claire Lawrence, Zdenka Pausova, Michael N. Smolka, Andreas Ströhle, Maren Struve, Stephanie H. Witt, Gunter Schumann, Herta Flor, Marcella Rietschel and The IMAGEN consortium

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12201

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      We analysed the effects of the schizophrenia-associated risk variant in AMBRA1 (rs11819869) on impulsivity-related traits on a behavioral, temperament, and neural level in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Our findings support the hypothesis that rs11819869 is involved in various aspects of impulsivity, and that this involvement occurs on a behavioral- as well as an imaging genetics level.

    3. Combination treatment with anti-Nogo-A and chondroitinase ABC is more effective than single treatments at enhancing functional recovery after spinal cord injury (pages 2946–2961)

      Rong-Rong Zhao, Melissa R. Andrews, Difei Wang, Philippa Warren, Miriam Gullo, Lisa Schnell, Martin E. Schwab and James W. Fawcett

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12276

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      Anti-Nogo-A antibody and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme are two promising treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Treatment with them has encouraged axon regeneration, sprouting and functional recovery in a variety of SC and CNS injury models.

    4. Supporting cells regulate the remodelling of aminoglycoside-injured organ of Corti, through the release of high mobility group box 1 (pages 2962–2972)

      Sabine Ladrech, Marc Mathieu, Jean-Luc Puel and Marc Lenoir

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12290

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      When the organ of Corti was poisoned by an aminoglycoside antibiotic, supporting cells named Deiters cells released the damage signal HMGB1 in response to hair cell degeneration. HMGB1 probably promoted chemoattraction of adjacent epithelial cells towards the site of initial damage through receptor RAGE engagement. This study underscores the major role of supporting cells and HMGB1 in orchestrating the remodelling of a sensory organ after drug poisoning.

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