European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 8

October 2013

Volume 38, Issue 8

Pages 3106–3260

  1. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    1. Cerebellar networks with basal ganglia: feasibility for tracking cerebello-pallidal and subthalamo-cerebellar projections in the human brain (pages 3106–3114)

      Esther Annegret Pelzer, Andreas Hintzen, Mathias Goldau, Detlev Yves von Cramon, Lars Timmermann and Marc Tittgemeyer

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12314

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      Anatomical studies using transneuronal virus tracers in monkeys recently found substantial interactions between basal ganglia and cerebellum. Here, we demonstrated that in vivo diffusion tractography in humans is capable of revealing the structural bases of cerebellar networks with the basal ganglia (B), supporting the role of the cerebellum as a satellite system in cortico-basal ganglia networks; we quantified these connections (C) by application of standardized segmentation protocols (A).

  2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    1. Rapid hippocampal network adaptation to recurring synchronous activity – a role for calcineurin (pages 3115–3127)

      J. R. Casanova, M. Nishimura, J. Le, T. T. Lam and J. W. Swann

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12315

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      Developing hippocampal networks were found to rapidly adapt to recurring synchronised activity. Reductions in network burst duration, frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, expression of glutamatergic synaptic proteins and dendritic branching of pyramidal neurons were observed after 4 h of increased activity. Calcineurin inhibitors prevented these effects. Results add to a growing appreciation of how altered calcium signaling, resulting from abnormal activity, impacts hippocampal development.

    2. Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the adult mouse insular cortex in vitro (pages 3128–3145)

      Ming-Gang Liu, Kohei Koga, Yan-Yan Guo, SukJae Joshua Kang, Graham L. Collingridge, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Ming-Gao Zhao and Min Zhuo

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12330

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      In the present study, we used a multi-electrode array system to characterise for the first time the temporal and spatial properties of long-term depression (LTD) in adult mouse insular cortex in vitro. We demonstrate that two different forms of LTD may co-exist in the insular synapses: one is NMDA receptor-dependent electrical LTD induced by synaptic stimulation, while the other is NMDA receptor-independent chemical LTD induced by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      GABAA receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses (pages 3146–3158)

      Celine Fuchs, Karine Abitbol, Jemima J. Burden, Audrey Mercer, Laura Brown, Jonathan Iball, F. Anne Stephenson, Alex M. Thomson and Jasmina N. Jovanovic

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12331

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      GABAA receptors initiate rapid formation of synaptic contacts in heterologous co-culture systems. These contacts are stable, as assessed by live cell imaging; they are active, as determined by uptake of a fluorescently-labelled synaptotagmin vesicle-luminal domain-specific antibody, and they support spontaneous and action-potential-driven postsynaptic GABAergic currents. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed characteristics typical of active synapses.

    4. Impaired slow axonal transport in diabetic peripheral nerve is independent of RAGE (pages 3159–3168)

      Judyta K. Juranek, Matthew S. Geddis, Rosa Rosario and Ann Marie Schmidt

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12333

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      Axonal transport of Neurofilament and mDia1 actin binding, RAGE interacting protein is impaired 3 and 6 h after the crush in the diabetic peripheral nerve, but independent of RAGE. Protein glycation is likely contributing to axonal transport impairment. We speculated that axonal transport changes in the diabetic nerve result at least in part from diabetes – evoked glycation and affect neurofilament and actin binding proteins early in the course of the disease.

  3. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. NEUROSYSTEMS
    1. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats (pages 3169–3180)

      Carlo Veronesi, Emma Maggiolini and Gianfranco Franchi

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12322

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      Intracortical microstimulation reveals WMC short-term reorganization after the SC inactivation by TTX and quinolinic acid injections. One hour after injections WMC output largely prevailed to the ipsilateral whisker and increased in EMG-response latency. Six hours later WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value. Afterwards WMC output returned nearly normal 12 h later and persisted unchanged over time. Conversely, EMG-response latency increased over time (3 weeks) following injections.

    2. Energy-efficient encoding by shifting spikes in neocortical neurons (pages 3181–3188)

      Aleksey Malyshev, Tatjana Tchumatchenko, Stanislav Volgushev and Maxim Volgushev

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12338

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      Cortical synapses are typically weak. Here we show that small EPSCs can lead, in line with inducing new action potentials, to a shift of spikes into the response peak. Certain activity patterns promote responding by spike-shifting. We suggest that this response mode allows neuronal networks to prevent explosion of firing, noise and related energy costs while maintaining high sensitivity to perturbations. It may promote energy-efficient computations using weak signals and sparse temporal code.

    3. The developmental trajectory of vocal and event-related potential responses to frequency-altered auditory feedback (pages 3189–3200)

      Nichole E. Scheerer, Hanjun Liu and Jeffery A. Jones

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12301

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      This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated children and adults’ vocal and neural responses to frequency-altered feedback. Vocal pitch variability, the latency of vocal responses, and P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were found to differ as a function of age. These results suggest that the neural systems that integrate auditory feedback during vocal motor control undergo robust changes with age and physiological development.

    4. Ventral and dorsal visual pathways support auditory motion processing in the blind: evidence from electrical neuroimaging (pages 3201–3209)

      Jörg Lewald and Stephan Getzmann

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12306

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      Correlates of auditory motion processing are substantially enhanced in blind compared to sighted human subjects about 170 ms after motion onset. Stronger activations in blind than sighted subjects were found primarily in ventral visual areas of the occipital cortex, while specific visual motion areas were involved to a lesser degree. This suggests a recruitment of visual areas for motion processing in the blind that is largely independent of the specific function in sighted persons.

    5. Environmental reverberation affects processing of sound intensity in right temporal cortex (pages 3210–3220)

      Christian F. Altmann, Kentaro Ono, Akiko Callan, Masao Matsuhashi, Tatsuya Mima and Hidenao Fukuyama

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12318

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      In this study, we tested the effect of room reverberation on psychophysical loudness constancy and the underlying neural responses employing magnetoencephalography. Psychophysically, we found that loudness constancy was present in strong, but not weak reverberation conditions. We observed brain activity reflecting behavioral loudness constancy from about 210 to 270 ms after stimulus onset, with generating sources in the right middle to inferior temporal lobe.

    6. The dopamine patchwork of the rat nucleus accumbens core (pages 3221–3229)

      Zhan Shu, I. Mitch Taylor and Adrian C. Michael

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12319

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      The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) contains a patchwork of fast and slow domains exhibiting significantly different rates of evoked dopamine (DA) release and clearance. Our findings reveal two substantial differences between the NAcc and dorsal striatum: there are no signs in the NAcc of short-term plasticity of DA release during multiple consecutive stimuli and no signs of a domain-dependent autoinhibitory tone.

    7. Network mechanisms of responsiveness to continuous theta-burst stimulation (pages 3230–3238)

      Sviatlana Rizk, Radek Ptak, Thomas Nyffeler, Armin Schnider and Adrian G. Guggisberg

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12334

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      cTBS modulates the coherence of resting-state oscillations, particularly in the alpha band. Coherence increase contralateral to stimulation site correlates with behavioral effect. Network effects are dependent on baseline network state.

    8. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response (pages 3239–3247)

      Callum J. Osler, M. C. A. Tersteeg, Raymond F. Reynolds and Ian D. Loram

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12336

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      We examined the balance response evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in human subjects stood on a high narrow walkway. In this highly threatening postural context the evoked sway was significantly reduced after ~800 ms, demonstrating that subjects were strongly motivated to minimise body displacement. Despite this, the early sway response did not differ between height and ground conditions, suggesting that postural threat does not affect the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

    9. Gaze direction affects linear self-motion heading discrimination in humans (pages 3248–3260)

      Jianguang Ni, Milos Tatalovic, Dominik Straumann and Itsaso Olasagasti

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12324

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      We found that inertial motion direction discrimination was biased in the direction of gaze; e.g., the same translations were judged more often towards the right when eye direction was to the right. Gaze effects have been reported on spatial localization tasks. We hypothesize that systematic errors occur when eye- head- or trunk-referenced frames deviate from their natural configurations during behavior. This is consistent with a top-down contextual influence on bottom-up sensory processing.

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