European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 11

Special Issue: EDITORS' ISSUE 2014

June 2014

Volume 39, Issue 11

Pages 1719–2026


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      Editors' Issue 2014 (page 1719)

      Jean-Marc Fritschy and Martin Sarter

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12605

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      A highly sensitive fluorescent indicator dye for calcium imaging of neural activity in vitro and in vivo (pages 1720–1728)

      Mayumi Tada, Atsuya Takeuchi, Miki Hashizume, Kazuo Kitamura and Masanobu Kano

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12476

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      Calcium imaging of individual neurons is widely used for monitoring their activity in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic fluorescent calcium indicator dyes are commonly used, but the resulting calcium signals sometimes suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

    3. Nestin expression and reactive phenomena in the mouse cochlea after kanamycin ototoxicity (pages 1729–1741)

      Tiziana Martone, Pamela Giordano, Federico Dagna, Daniela Carulli, Roberto Albera and Ferdinando Rossi

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12576

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      Following injury to the adult mammalian cochlea, hair cells cannot be spontaneously replaced. Nonetheless, the postnatal cochlea contains progenitor cells, distinguished by the expression of nestin, which are able to proliferate and form neurospheres in vitro.

    4. Routes to cAMP: shaping neuronal connectivity with distinct adenylate cyclases (pages 1742–1751)

      Xavier Nicol and Patricia Gaspar

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12543

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      How cAMP signals are precisely controlled in time and space to produce such a broad range of developmental effects remains unknown, but one of the key elements in this process lies in the regulation of the enzymes that produce cAMP, the adenylate cyclases (ACs). AC mutants that are defective for a subset of the calcium sensitive isoforms, namely AC1, AC3 and AC10, have defects in neural wiring in main developmental model systems such as the barrel cortex, the visual pathways, the olfactory system, and the corticospinal tract. Studies over the last ten years emphasized the role of calcium-stimulated adenylate cyclases during late stages of neural circuit wiring suggesting that a main function of these ACs during development would be to act as integrators of neural activity and axon guidance molecules.

    5. SynCAMs extend their functions beyond the synapse (pages 1752–1760)

      Jeannine A. Frei and Esther T. Stoeckli

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12544

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      SynCAMs, the prototypic family of synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders due to their role in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. However, they are also involved in earlier stages of neural circuit formation. Their role in axon guidance may be shared by other families of synaptic cell adhesion molecules, indicating that distinct features of neurodevelopmental disorders may be specified by perturbation of several steps in neural circuit formation.

    6. The role of glutamate in the morphological and physiological development of dendritic spines (pages 1761–1770)

      Hayley A. Mattison, Dina Popovkina, Joseph P. Y. Kao and Scott M. Thompson

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12536

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      Dendritic spines form the postsynaptic half of the synapse but how they form during CNS development remains uncertain, as are the factors that promote their morphological and physiological maturation. One hypothesis posits that filopodia, long motile dendritic processes that are present prior to spine formation, are the precursors to spines.

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      Distinct axo-somato-dendritic distributions of three potassium channels in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells (pages 1771–1783)

      Tekla Kirizs, Katalin Kerti-Szigeti, Andrea Lorincz and Zoltan Nusser

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12526

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      Freeze-fracture replica immunogold localisation revealed distinct subcellular distribution patterns for three K+ channel subunits on CA1 pyramidal cells. The Kv1.1 is present in axons, with an ~ 8-fold higher density in AISs than in axon terminals. The Kv2.1 has the same density in AISs, somata and proximal dendrites. The Kir3.2 density increases quasi-linearly from the soma to distal dendrites. Our results predict their differential involvement in synaptic integration and output generation.

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      Olfactory coding in the insect brain: data and conjectures (pages 1784–1795)

      C. Giovanni Galizia

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12558

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      A comprehensive analysis of odor processing networks in the insect brain, from the antennal lobe to mushroom bodies and lateral protocerebrum, analysing the role different synapses play in these networks.

    9. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area receive dual GABA/enkephalin-mediated inhibitory inputs from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pages 1796–1809)

      Takehiro Kudo, Kohtarou Konno, Motokazu Uchigashima, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ichiro Sora, Masabumi Minami and Masahiko Watanabe

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12503

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      Activation of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) disinhibits dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through inhibition of GABAergic neurons. This mechanism is thought to play a pivotal role in mediating reward behaviors.

    10. The fear circuit of the mouse forebrain: connections between the mediodorsal thalamus, frontal cortices and basolateral amygdala (pages 1810–1823)

      Ferenc Mátyás, JoonHyuk Lee, Hee-Sup Shin and László Acsády

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12610

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      We report that the three key nodes of the fear circuit in the mouse forebrain (prelimibic/infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala and mediordorsal thalamic nucleus) display no closed triangular connectivity. Rather, amygdalar and thalamic information are integrated via well-defined cortical sectors (cingulate/M2 cortex and orbital cortices) whose roles in fear-related behaviour have not been extensively studied. The study provides the morphological framework for the studies of murine fear related behaviours.

    11. Area 4 has layer IV in adult primates (pages 1824–1834)

      Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas and Helen Barbas

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12585

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      There are opposing views of whether area 4 in adult primates has layer IV. In area 4 of the adult monkey, the molecular marker SMI-32 helped delineate a central unlabeled cortical stripe populated with small interneurons that corresponds to layer IV. The status of layer IV in area 4 pertains to core organisational features of the cortex, its connections and evolution.

    12. Kainate receptors in the hippocampus (pages 1835–1844)

      Mario Carta, Sabine Fièvre, Adam Gorlewicz and Christophe Mulle

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12590

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      This review summarises the functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors of the kainate type (KARs) in the hippocampus in health and diseases. KARs regulate the activity of hippocampal synaptic circuits at the adult stage and throughout development. We focus on the variety of roles played by KARs in physiological conditions of activation by endogenously-released glutamate acting at either pre- or postsynaptic sites, through either metabotropic or ionotropic actions.

    13. GABAA receptors and plasticity of inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (pages 1845–1865)

      Jean-Marc Fritschy and Patrizia Panzanelli

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12534

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      GABAA receptor heterogeneity arises through combinatorial assembly of a large family of subunits to generate multiple receptor subtypes. It is an important facet of the variety of GABAergic signaling in adult and developing CNS, and a key factor underlying GABAergic synaptic plasticity underlying excitatory/inhibitory balance in neuronal circuits. This review presents and discusses recent progress in elucidating the relevance of GABAA receptor heterogeneity for CNS function in health and disease.

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      Circadian rhythms have broad implications for understanding brain and behavior (pages 1866–1880)

      Rae Silver and Lance J. Kriegsfeld

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12593

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      The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the locus of a master circadian clock. The SCN is synchronized to the light-dark cycle by direct, monosynaptic innervation via the retinohypothalamic tract. In turn, the SCN coordinates rhythmic activities of innumerable subordinate brain clocks via neural efferents and diffusible/paracrine signals which, in turn, modulate activity in the rest of the body. A consequence of this hierarchical, multilevel feedback system is that there are ubiquitous effects of circadian timing on genetic and metabolic responses throughout the body.

    15. Studying ongoing and spontaneous pain in rodents – challenges and opportunities (pages 1881–1890)

      Anke Tappe-Theodor and Rohini Kuner

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12643

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      Spontaneous ongoing pain tests in rodents can be classified into two groups of ‘non-reflexive measures’ and ‘free-choice tests’. The figure summarizes the current available tests and measurements to monitor behavioral changes that are discussed in this review and are under extensive and longstanding debate.

    16. Prelimbic and infralimbic cortical regions differentially encode cocaine-associated stimuli and cocaine-seeking before and following abstinence (pages 1891–1902)

      Elizabeth A. West, Michael P. Saddoris, Erin C. Kerfoot and Regina M. Carelli

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12578

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      Neurons in both the PrL and IL are responsive to drug-associated cues and instrumental contingencies before and following abstinence. Importantly, one month of abstinence from cocaine self-administration enhances recruitment of PrL neurons that encode cocaine-associated stimuli and drug-seeking behavior, under both extinction and self-administration conditions. In contrast, while there was a general increase in IL recruitment during instrumental actions compared to cocaine associated cues, neural encoding in the IL did not significantly change in either condition after 30 days of cocaine abstinence.

    17. Role of paraventricular nucleus-projecting norepinephrine/epinephrine neurons in acute and chronic stress (pages 1903–1911)

      Jonathan N. Flak, Brent Myers, Matia B. Solomon, Jessica M. McKlveen, Eric G. Krause and James P. Herman

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12587

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      Data collected from rats stereotaxically injected with saporin toxin conjugated to DBH antibody into the PVN suggest that PVN-projecting NE/E neurons contribute to the generation of acute stress responses and are required for HPA axis drive (ACTH release) during chronic stress. However, loss of NE/E drive at the PVN appears to be buffered by compensation at the level of the adrenal and thus fail to limit chronic stress-induced glucocorticoid hypersecretion.

    18. Deterministic functions of cortical acetylcholine (pages 1912–1920)

      Martin Sarter, Cindy Lustig, William M. Howe, Howard Gritton and Anne S. Berry

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12515

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      Traditional descriptions of the basal forebrain cholinergic projection system to the cortex focused on neuromodulatory influences, that is, mechanisms that modulate cortical information processing but are not necessary for mediating discrete behavioral responses and cognitive operations. This review summarises and conceptualises the evidence in support of more deterministic contributions of cholinergic projections to cortical information processing.

    19. Brain γ-aminobutyric acid: a neglected role in impulsivity (pages 1921–1932)

      Dave J. Hayes, Bianca Jupp, Steve J. Sawiak, Emiliano Merlo, Daniele Caprioli and Jeffrey W. Dalley

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12485

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      The investigation of impulsivity as a core marker of several major neuropsychiatric disorders has been greatly influenced by the therapeutic efficacy of drugs that block the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain. As a result, research into the neural mechanisms of impulsivity has focused on the catecholamine systems as the loci responsible for the expression of impulsive behaviour and the primary mechanism of action of clinically-effective drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    20. Modelling the genetic contribution to mental illness: a timely end for the psychiatric rodent? (pages 1933–1942)

      Brittany A. Davis and Anthony R. Isles

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12607

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      The integration of data across animal models of psychiatric genetic risk is currently limited by the tendency to focus on a disorder-specific diagnosis. We argue a more multidimensional approach should be adopted, one which places emphasis on: developing a system of classification that identifies broad behaviour/cognition, neurochemistry and neurophysiology phenotypes (blue and red circles), looking for association across categories of phenotypes (overlapping blue and red circles), and finally on identifying disorder-relevant endophenotypes which may be shared across diagnostic categories (yellow circle). For example, here we focus on overlaps in Autism and Schizophrenia endophenotypes that can be integrated into phenotypic analysis.

    21. Spike detection from noisy neural data in linear-probe recordings (pages 1943–1950)

      Takashi Takekawa, Keisuke Ota, Masanori Murayama and Tomoki Fukai

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12614

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      We introduce a spike detection method based on a model of extracellular recording data that takes into account variations in spike waveforms, such as the widths and amplitudes of spikes. The proposed method can evaluate appropriate thresholds using the distributions of the peaks of band-pass-filtered data.

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      The highs and lows of beta activity in cortico-basal ganglia loops (pages 1951–1959)

      John-Stuart Brittain, Andrew Sharott and Peter Brown

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12574

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      Here, we develop the hypothesis that synchronization in the beta (13–30 Hz) frequency band is a critical factor in gating computation across a population of neurons. Task and context drive this dynamic gating such that an exaggeration in synchrony (as observed in Parkinson's disease) and its excessive suppression (through deep brain stimulation) can impair behavioural performance.

    23. Throwing out the rules: anticipatory alpha-band oscillatory attention mechanisms during task-set reconfigurations (pages 1960–1972)

      John J. Foxe, Jeremy W. Murphy and Pierfilippo De Sanctis

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12577

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      We often need to juggle tasks, rapidly calling up rules for a new task while inhibiting rules for the last task. Research shows that oscillatory brain mechanisms in the alpha-band (8–14 Hz) are involved in the anticipatory deployment of attention. Here, we show that patterns of alpha-band synchronisations and desynchronisations are related to performance during a task where individuals are required to switch rapidly between performance of an auditory and a visual task. The more vigorous these alpha-band modulations were, the more effectively an individual switched between sensory modalities.

    24. Causal evidence supporting functional dissociation of verbal and spatial working memory in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pages 1973–1981)

      Peter J. Fried, Richard J. Rushmore III, Mark B. Moss, Antoni Valero-Cabré and Alvaro Pascual-Leone

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12584

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      Whether the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is organised by the type of information in working memory is a topic of ongoing debate. The current study aimed to investigate this relationship using 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been shown to reduce cortical excitability and metabolism. When applied to the left vs. right dlPFC, 1 Hz rTMS had opposite effects on the ability of healthy adult subjects to accurately perform verbal and spatial versions of the 3-back task of working memory. These findings provide human evidence for domain-specific contributions of the dlPFC to working memory.

    25. Functions of gamma-band synchronization in cognition: from single circuits to functional diversity across cortical and subcortical systems (pages 1982–1999)

      Conrado A. Bosman, Carien S. Lansink and Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12606

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      Gamma-band synchronization (30–90 Hz) has been observed across several species, in different cortical and subcortical brain structures and it has been associated with different cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown whether gamma-band synchronization subserves a single universal function or a multiplicity of functions across all observed cognitive processes. Here, we assess this question by reviewing how gamma oscillations originate from neuronal circuits, what are the computational processes that gamma promote and what are the evolutionary roots that link gamma with neuronal computations. We conclude that gamma band synchronization supports several cognitive functions that can be traced back to a limited set of circuit motifs which are found universally across species and brain structures.

    26. Saccade deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment resemble mild Alzheimer's disease (pages 2000–2013)

      Alicia Peltsch, Alisha Hemraj, Angeles Garcia and Douglas P. Munoz

      Version of Record online: 1 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12617

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      The prosaccade task (look toward a peripheral stimulus) and antisaccade task (inhibit prosaccade to peripheral stimulus and instead initiate saccade to opposite location) are used to assess cognitive impairment. Disease-specific patterns begin to emerge. Individual antisaccade traces for a representative 75 year old elderly control, a 76 year old aMCI patient, and a 75 year old AD patient are shown here. Solid lines = correct saccades, dotted lines = direction errors. S = stimulus, FP = fixation point.

    27. Distinguishing informational from value-related encoding of rewarding and punishing outcomes in the human brain (pages 2014–2026)

      Ryan K. Jessup and John P. O'Doherty

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12625

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      Neural signals of outcome-value, can be distinguished from information about the identity of an outcome. Here we determine the contributions of a number of different brain regions in encoding informational aspects of outcomes as well as outcome value. Using fMRI in humans we show informational coding of outcomes in many brain areas also implicated in encoding value. These findings highlight the importance of other features of outcomes other than value for understanding outcome processing in the brain.