European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 12

June 2014

Volume 39, Issue 12

Pages 2027–2162


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    1. Interneuron firing precedes sequential activation of neuronal ensembles in hippocampal slices (pages 2027–2036)

      Takuya Sasaki, Norio Matsuki and Yuji Ikegaya

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12554

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      Neuronal firing sequences that occur during behavioral tasks are precisely reactivated in the cortex. In this study, we monitored ongoing spatiotemporal firing patterns using a multi-neuron calcium imaging and found that inhibitory interneurons exhibited an increase in their firing rates prior to the onset of repeating sequences. These findings provide a conceptual framework that interneurons serve as a key regulator of initiating sequential spike activity.

    2. Different forms of locomotion in the spinal lamprey (pages 2037–2049)

      Li-Ju Hsu, Grigori N. Orlovsky and Pavel V. Zelenin

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12553

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      Forward locomotion has been extensively studied in different vertebrate animals, and the principal role of spinal mechanisms in generation of this form of locomotion has been demonstrated. Vertebrate animals, however, are capable of other forms of locomotion such as backward walking and swimming, sideward walking, crawling.

    3. Involvement of astroglial glutamate–glutamine shuttle in modulation of the jaw-opening reflex following infraorbital nerve injury (pages 2050–2059)

      Rahman Md. Mostafeezur, Masamichi Shinoda, Syunpei Unno, Hossain Md. Zakir, Hanako Takatsuji, Kojiro Takahashi, Yoshiaki Yamada, Kensuke Yamamura, Koichi Iwata and Junichi Kitagawa

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12562

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      To evaluate the mechanisms underlying orofacial motor dysfunction associated with trigeminal nerve injury, we studied the astroglial cell activation following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION) immunohistochemically, nocifensive behavior in ION-CCI rats and the effect of glutamine synthase (GS) blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) on jaw-opening reflex (JOR), and also studied if glutamate-glutamine shuttle mechanism is involved in orofacial motor dysfunction. GFAP immunoreactive cells were observed in the trigeminal motor nucleus (motV) 3 and 14 days after ION-CCI, and the nocifensive behavior and JOR amplitude were also strongly enhanced at these days after ION-CCI.

    4. Contrast-dependent OFF-dominance in cat primary visual cortex facilitates discrimination of stimuli with natural contrast statistics (pages 2060–2070)

      Kefei Liu and Haishan Yao

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12567

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      We showed that optimal coding of the natural contrast signals would lead to a stronger degree of OFF-dominance in neuronal response at a higher contrast. Such contrast-dependent OFF-dominance was indeed observed in the responses of cat V1 neuronal population. Further analysis with receptive field models showed that the contrast-dependent OFF-dominance may allow better discrimination of stimuli with natural contrast statistics.

    5. Decoding the individual finger movements from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings of human brain activity (pages 2071–2082)

      Guohua Shen, Jing Zhang, Mengxing Wang, Du Lei, Guang Yang, Shanmin Zhang and Xiaoxia Du

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12547

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      We explored the decoding of individual finger movements using fMRI, and the multivariate pattern classification analysis was based on single trial data. We found that the decoding accuracies in the brain ROI of left S1 and M1 were significantly above the chance level. This study might allow a better understanding the basis neural mechanism controlling the movements of individual fingers and may provide new insights into the potential of an fMRI-based BMI for finger movements.

    6. Selective modulation of motor cortical plasticity during voluntary contraction of the antagonist muscle (pages 2083–2088)

      Jhih-Hong Fang, Ying-Zu Huang, Ing-Shiou Hwang and Jia-Jin J. Chen

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12565

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      The effect of voluntary contraction of the antagonist muscle on the cTBS aftereffect was evaluated. The aftereffect of cTBS was only altered when the antagonist muscle was contracted synchronously with the magnetic trains. A slight contraction of the antagonist muscle during cTBS (d-ECR10) enhanced the suppressing effect of cTBS on the agonist MEP, whereas effortful antagonistic activity during cTBS (d-ECR60) prevented suppression. Antag.: antagonist.


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    1. Cross-modal decoupling in temporal attention (pages 2089–2097)

      Stefanie Mühlberg, Giovanni Oriolo and Salvador Soto-Faraco

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12563

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      Orienting spatial attention in one modality causes shifts of attention in other modalities. The present study addresses whether the deployment of attention in time is subject to similar cross-modal synergies. We found that, unlike spatial attention, attending to a modality at a point in time does not automatically create expectation in another modality. Instead, temporal attention seems to be deployed with relative independence for different sensory modalities.

    2. Fixational saccades alter the gap effect (pages 2098–2106)

      Masayuki Watanabe, Yuka Matsuo, Ling Zha, Michael R. MacAskill and Yasushi Kobayashi

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12566

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      The reaction times of saccadic eye movements have been studied extensively as a probe for cognitive behavior controlled by large-scale cortical and subcortical neural networks. Recent studies have shown that the reaction times of targeting saccades toward peripheral visual stimuli are prolonged by fixational saccades, the largest miniature eye movements including microsaccades.


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    1. IMM-H004 prevents toxicity induced by delayed treatment of tPA in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia involving PKA-and PI3K-dependent Akt activation (pages 2107–2118)

      Wei Zuo, Jiao Chen, Shuai Zhang, Jia Tang, Hang Liu, Dongming Zhang and Naihong Chen

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12551

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      Once beyond the time window (3–4.5 h after ischemic onset), tPA treatment is associated with high incidences of side effects which limited its clinical application. Combination treatment with IMM-H004 can alleviate the toxicity of tPA (hemorrhagic transformation, BBB injury and so on), thereby increasing the efficiency of reperfusion. Thus IMM-H004 might be a promising adjuvant to prolong the time window of tPA in clinic.

    2. Attenuation of urokinase activity during experimental ischaemia protects the cerebral barrier from damage through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and NAD(P)H oxidase (pages 2119–2128)

      Kamini Rakkar, Kirtiman Srivastava and Ulvi Bayraktutan

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12552

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      Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) continues to be the leading cause of mortality after an ischemic stroke. Exposing the main cellular component of human BBB, namely brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to OGD±R, this study shows that attenuation of urokinase activity (uPA) protects the integrity of an in vitro model of human BBB against ischemia-evoked damage through a cascade of mechanisms involving concomitant suppression of oxidative stress and matrix metalloprotinases.

    3. Chronic metformin treatment improves post-stroke angiogenesis and recovery after experimental stroke (pages 2129–2138)

      Venugopal R. Venna, Jun Li, Matthew D. Hammond, Nickolas S. Mancini and Louise D. McCullough

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12556

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      Chronic metformin treatment improves post-stroke functional recovery in mice subjected to experimental stroke. This recovery occurred in parallel with enhanced VEGF expression and reduced glial scar formation. There was a significant increase in neovascularization of peri-ischemic tissue. Using genetically engineered AMPK α2 knock-out mice we confirmed that the beneficial effects of metformin are mediated via AMPK signaling.

    4. Disease stage determines the efficacy of treatment of a paediatric neurodegenerative disease (pages 2139–2150)

      Sofia Hassiotis, Helen Beard, Amanda Luck, Paul J. Trim, Barbara King, Marten F. Snel, John J. Hopwood and Kim M. Hemsley

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12557

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      Lysosomal storage disorders are a large group of inherited metabolic conditions resulting from the deficiency of proteins involved in lysosomal catabolism, with resulting accumulation of substrates inside the cell. Two-thirds of these disorders are associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype and whilst few therapeutic options are available to patients at present, clinical trials of several treatments including lysosomal enzyme replacement are underway.

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      A spatiotemporal study of gliosis in relation to depth electrode tracks in drug-resistant epilepsy (pages 2151–2162)

      Joanna Goc, Joan Y. W. Liu, Sanjay M. Sisodiya and Maria Thom

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12548

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      Nestin expressing cells (NEC) were studied in cortical injuries of 4–301 days old, following intracranial electrode insertion for the investigation of epilepsy. NECs represent a highly proliferative (MCM2+/PAX6+), transient population associated with new capillaries in the organising tissue. Their numbers decline over time but they contribute to the formation of the glial scar with evidence to suggest a capacity for astroglial (GFAP+/SOX2+) and possible neuronal differentiation.