European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 2

January 2014

Volume 39, Issue 2

Pages 165–329

  1. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. A protocol for concurrent high-quality immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses in adult mouse central nervous system (pages 165–175)

      Tina Notter, Patrizia Panzanelli, Sandra Pfister, Dennis Mircsof and Jean-Marc Fritschy

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12447

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      This technical spotlight describes a tissue preparation protocol suitable for performing biochemical experiments and immunohistochemistry under optimal conditions with CNS tissue from the same mouse. We illustrate the versatility of this protocol with examples of Western blotting, real-time PCR, immunoperoxidase staining, immuno-electron microscopy, and high sensitivity immunofluorescence staining in various mouse brain tissue preparations.

  2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β protects rat cerebellar granule neurons from apoptosis through its transcription-activating isoforms (pages 176–185)

      Emiliano Peña-Altamira, Elisabetta Polazzi, Edoardo Moretto, Mattia Lauriola and Barbara Monti

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12407

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      C/EBP β isoforms, LAP1, LAP2 and LIP, are all present in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons, with different sub-cellular localizations and post-translational modifications in trophic or apoptotic conditions. In apoptotic conditions, nuclear LAP1 decreases and its phosphorylation disappears, while LIP increases in the nuclear fraction. Over-expression of both LAPs, but not LIP, counteracts apoptosis, demonstrating the pro-survival role of LAPs, also confirmed in medulloblastoma stable clones.

    2. Mechanism of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization in rat serotonergic neurons (pages 186–196)

      Philippe Alix, Kumar Venkatesan, Jacqueline Scuvée-Moreau, Laurent Massotte, Mai-Linh Nguyen Trung, Charlotte A. Cornil and Vincent Seutin

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12408

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      This paper reports results from immunocytochemically identified serotonin-containing neurons of the dorsal raphe (see above biocytin staining in B, tryptophan hydroxylase staining in C and overlay in D). It is demonstrated that N-type Ca2+ channels are the main source of Ca2+ which activates SK channels that underlie the prominent medium duration afterhyperpolarization in these neurons.

  3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Behavioural sensitivity to binaural spatial cues in ferrets: evidence for plasticity in the duplex theory of sound localization (pages 197–206)

      Peter Keating, Fernando R. Nodal and Andrew J. King

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12402

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      We measured behavioral sensitivity to binaural spatial cues at different sound frequencies in ferrets. Our data are consistent with the duplex theory, which states that low- and high-frequency sounds are respectively localized using interaural time and level differences, and provide insights into the neural and acoustical factors involved. Training can improve sensitivity to low-frequency interaural level differences, which could benefit rehabilitation strategies following hearing loss.

    2. Ghrelin receptor-knockout mice display alterations in circadian rhythms of activity and feeding under constant lighting conditions (pages 207–217)

      E. Waddington Lamont, J. Bruton, I. D. Blum and A. Abizaid

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12390

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      Ghrelin is an orexigenic stomach hormone, and may also be a modulator of the circadian system. In constant darkness, GHSR KO mice required more days to develop a high level of food anticipatory activity, but, in constant light, showed greater activity overall, and greater activity in anticipation of a scheduled meal. These results suggest that the ghrelin receptor plays a role in modulating the activity of the circadian system, but does so through mechanisms that remain to be determined.

    3. Periodic properties of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain (pages 218–228)

      Stanislav V. Rozov, Janneke C. Zant, Kaj Karlstedt, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen and Pertti Panula

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12397

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      Our results show that the activities of histamine metabolizing enzymes are not under simple direct circadian regulation. The complex and non-uniform temporal patterns of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain suggest that histamine is strongly involved in maintenance of active waking.

    4. Dual regulation of clock gene Per2 expression in discrete brain areas by the circadian pacemaker and methamphetamine-induced oscillator in rats (pages 229–240)

      Akiyo Natsubori, Ken-ichi Honma and Sato Honma

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12400

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      Periodic administration of methamphetamine containing water to rats induced an oscillation (MAO) independent of the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Bilateral SCN lesions accelerated MAO-induced changes of the circadian Per2 expression rhythms in several areas of brain dopaminergic system, indicating that MAO and SCN pacemaker regulate coordinately the extra-SCN circadian oscillators in these areas. Differential coordination suggests that they are the components of MAO.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Selective importance of the rat anterior thalamic nuclei for configural learning involving distal spatial cues (pages 241–256)

      Julie R. Dumont, Eman Amin and John P. Aggleton

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12409

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      Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) lesions impaired biconditional learning when the task used distal spatial cues, but spared contextual biconditional learning (see graph). ATN lesions did not stop discrimination learning (go/no-go) between two locations approached from a constant direction, but still impaired acquisition of a spatial biconditional task when those same places determined the correct choice. These ATN lesion deficits mirror those seen after hippocampal lesions in rats.

    6. Estrogen potentiates the behavioral and nucleus accumbens dopamine response to continuous haloperidol treatment in female rats (pages 257–265)

      Dan Madularu, Waqqas M. Shams and Wayne G. Brake

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12401

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      Haloperidol treatment along with high, but not low, estradiol replacement was effective in reducing amphetamine-induced locomotor activity in sensitized rats. High estradiol treatment also augmented the effects of chronic haloperidol in reducing dopaminergic release in sensitized rats. These data suggest that estradiol levels affect both the behavioral and dopamine responses to chronic antipsychotic treatment.

    7. Fish oil improves anxiety-like, depressive-like and cognitive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomised rats (pages 266–274)

      Claudia Pudell, Bianca A. Vicente, Ana M. Delattre, Bruno Carabelli, Marco A. Mori, Deborah Suchecki, Ricardo B. Machado, Sílvio M. Zanata, Jesuí V. Visentainer, Oscar de Oliveira Santos Junior, Marcelo M. S. Lima and Anete C. Ferraz

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12406

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      Early fish oil supplementation prevents behavioral dysfunctions induced by depression model in young adulthood. The antidepressant-like behavior of fish oil involves the serotonergic system and an increase of BDNF expression.

    8. Long-lasting marked inhibition of periaqueductal gray-evoked defensive behaviors in inescapably-shocked rats (pages 275–286)

      Jeyce W. Quintino-dos-Santos, Cláudia J. T. Müller, Alexandre M. C. Santos, Sérgio Tufik, Caroline A. Rosa and Luiz C. Schenberg

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12410

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      Percent changes of median threshold intensities (I50 ± SE) of rat defensive behaviors produced by electrical stimulations of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the 2nd (2) and 7th (7) days after the terminus of one-way escape training with shocks either fictive (FS), escapable (ES) or inescapable (IS). Screening sessions (day-8) were carried out 2 days before the onset of one-way escape training (days -6 to 0). Note that the previous exposure to IS produced a long-lasting marked attenuation (threshold increase) of DPAG-evoked immobility, exophthalmos, trotting and galloping. Symbols indicate significant differences relative either to the baseline value (*) and DPAG second stimulation session (§), or to ES (+) and FS (#) groups (Bonferroni's 5% criterion of likelihood ratio chi-square tests for location of parallel-fitted threshold curves).

  4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    4. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    5. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    1. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes (pages 287–294)

      Eva Siegenthaler, Francisco M. Costela, Michael B. McCamy, Leandro L. Di Stasi, Jorge Otero-Millan, Andreas Sonderegger, Rudolf Groner, Stephen Macknik and Susana Martinez-Conde

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12395

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      We investigated the effects of task difficulty on human microsaccades during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. Microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. These results are consistent with task difficulty-induced variations in attentional load, which may modulate microsaccadic rates and magnitudes via changes in the intensity and shape of the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

    2. Short-duration stimulation of the supplementary eye fields perturbs anti-saccade performance while potentiating contralateral head orienting (pages 295–307)

      Brendan B. Chapman and Brian D. Corneil

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12403

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      Many forms of brain stimulation leverage the notion of state dependency, whereby greater influences are observed when a given area is more engaged at the time of stimulation. Here, by delivering intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to the supplementary eye fields (SEF) of monkeys performing interleaved pro- and anti-saccades, we show a surprising diversity of state-dependent effects of ICMS-SEF.

    3. Temporal regularity facilitates higher-order sensory predictions in fast auditory sequences (pages 308–318)

      Alessandro Tavano, Andreas Widmann, Alexandra Bendixen, Nelson Trujillo-Barreto and Erich Schröger

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12404

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      Temporal regularity facilitates the attenuation of the error response to predictable deviant tone repetitions in fast auditory sequences (Higher-order prediction). Higher-order auditory prediction translates into reduced posterior STG activity. Temporal regularity does not modulate first-order prediction error responses based on deviance detection mechanisms (Mismatch Negativity).

    4. Online decoding of object-based attention using real-time fMRI (pages 319–329)

      Adnan M. Niazi, Philip L. C. van den Broek, Stefan Klanke, Markus Barth, Mannes Poel, Peter Desain and Marcel A. J. van Gerven

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12405

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      The study used real-time fMRI to decode attention to objects belonging to two distinct categories, faces and places. Subjects saw superimposed pictures of a face and place and attended to one of them. Category of the attended object was decoded in real-time and used to provide neurofeedback to the subject by enhancing the attended picture. The attended object was decoding with high accuracy.

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