European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 4

February 2014

Volume 39, Issue 4

Pages 520–704

  1. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Measuring risk-taking in mice: balancing the risk between seeking reward and danger (pages 520–530)

      Claire L. Dent, Anthony R. Isles and Trevor Humby

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12430

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      We have developed a novel naturalistic paradigm to assess risk-taking, the ‘predator-odor risk-taking’ task. We show, in two strains of mice, the sensitivity of the task to measure the trade-off between cost and benefit by demonstrating reduced motivation to collect a reward (the ‘benefit’) in the presence of rat, cat or fox odours (the ‘cost’). This task will aid the investigation of the risk-taking behaviour in genetic models, and add a further dimension to other recently developed rodent tests.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Dlx1 transcription factor regulates dendritic growth and postsynaptic differentiation through inhibition of neuropilin-2 and PAK3 expression (pages 531–547)

      Xiaojing Dai, Hirohide Iwasaki, Masahiko Watanabe and Shigeo Okabe

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12413

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      Dlx1 is expressed in mouse hippocampal interneurons. Overexpression of Dlx1 in excitatory pyramidal neurons reduces the number of dendrites dramatically and the resultant morphology of neuron becomes similar to that of interneurons. Conversely, downregulation of Dlx1 increases the number of dendrites in interneurons. These results suggest the role of Dlx1 as an endogenous regulator of dendrite morphogenesis in interneurons.

    2. Chronic methylphenidate exposure during adolescence reduces striatal synaptic responses to ethanol (pages 548–556)

      Nicole A. Crowley, Patrick A. Cody, Margaret I. Davis, David M. Lovinger and Yolanda Mateo

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12426

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      Administration of therapeutically relevant doses of methylphenidate, a psychostimulant used as cognitive enhancer, during development can have long-term effects on synaptic plasticity in forebrain regions targeted by dopamine. Chronic peri-adolescence exposure to methylphenidate modifies dopamine release dynamics, synaptic plasticity, and ethanol-mediated plasticity. These enduring neural adaptations are likely to underlie neural and behavioral responses to ethanol administration in adulthood.

  3. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Neuronal activity-dependent STAT3 localization to nucleus is dependent on Tyr-705 and Ser-727 phosphorylation in rat hippocampal neurons (pages 557–565)

      Sachiko Murase and Ronald D. McKay

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12412

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      Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dramatically increases during the first post-natal week, and supports the survival of mature hippocampal neurons. Recently, we reported that chronic elevation of excitability leads to a loss of STAT3 signal, inducing vulnerability in neurons.

    2. Regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons (pages 566–578)

      Kaid Johar, Anusha Priya and Margaret T. T. Wong-Riley

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12415

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      Na+/K+-ATPase, a major energy consumer in neurons, is regulated by the neuron-specific specificity protein 4 (Sp4), with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3. Sp4 positively regulates the expression of Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na+/K+-ATPase. As Sp4 is recently found by us to also regulate cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and critical glutamate receptor subunit genes, it mediates the coupling of energy consumption, energy generation, and neuronal activity in neurons.

  4. NEUROSYSTEMS

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Novel Disabled-1-expressing neurons identified in adult brain and spinal cord (pages 579–592)

      Autumn D. Abadesco, Marianne Cilluffo, Griselda M. Yvone, Ellen M. Carpenter, Brian W. Howell and Patricia E. Phelps

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12416

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      Components of the Reelin-signaling pathway are highly expressed in embryos and regulate neuronal positioning, whereas these molecules are expressed at low levels in adults and modulate synaptic plasticity. Dab1 expression in adult neocortex is concentrated in laminae II, III, and V, and includes the corticospinal tract neurons.

    2. Spatiotemporal flow of information in the early visual pathway (pages 593–601)

      Bartlett D. Moore IV, Daniel L. Rathbun, W. Martin Usrey and Ralph D. Freeman

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12418

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      This study addresses the question of how spatial features of a visual stimulus are processed over time. Results reveal (i) a temporal sequence of spatial processing that proceeds from coarse-to-fine, (ii) coarse-to-fine processing begins in the retina, (iii) center/surround interactions may play an essential role in the tuning of coarse-to-fine processing, and (iv) a progressive cascade of coarse-to-fine processing occurs in the pathway from retina to LGN to visual cortex.

    3. Noise-rearing disrupts the maturation of multisensory integration (pages 602–613)

      Jinghong Xu, Liping Yu, Benjamin A. Rowland, Terrence R. Stanford and Barry E. Stein

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12423

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      It is commonly believed that the ability to integrate information from different senses develops according to associative learning principles as neurons acquire experience with co-active cross-modal inputs. However, previous studies have not distinguished between requirements for co-activation versus co-variation.

    4. ATP P2Y1 receptors control cognitive deficits and neurotoxicity but not glial modifications induced by brain ischemia in mice (pages 614–622)

      Marta R. S. Carmo, Ana Patrícia Simões, Analu A. Fonteles, Carolina M. Souza, Rodrigo A. Cunha and Geanne M. Andrade

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12435

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      The generic ATP P2 receptor (P2R) antagonist PPADS (1.0 nmol) and the selective P2Y1R antagonist MRS2500 (2.0 nmol, icv) attenuated brain infarct and memory deficits upon brain ischemia (MCAO). PPADS prevented MCAO-induced neuronal damage, astrogliosis and microgliosis, whereas the selective P2Y1R blockade only affected neuronal damage. Thus P2Y1R neuroprotection mainly occurs through neuronal mechanisms, whereas other P2R control astrocytic reactivity upon brain injury.

    5. Central correlation of muscle sympathetic nerve activation during baroreflex unloading – a microneurography–positron emission tomography study (pages 623–629)

      Heidrun H. Krämer, Stephan-Johann Ament, Markus Breimhorst, Andre Klega, Katharina Schmieg, Corina Endres, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Mikael Elam, Mathias Schreckenberger and Frank Birklein

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12437

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      The baroreceptor reflex controls spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure. One major control variable of the baroreflex is the sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity to muscles [MSNA; burst frequency (BF) and burst incidence (BI)], which can be quantitatively assessed by microneurography.

  5. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Site-specific effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (pages 630–639)

      George J. Kallingal and Eric M. Mintz

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12411

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      Gastrin-releasing peptide is an intrinsic neuropeptide of the suprachiasmatic nucleus that mediates the effects of light on the circadian clock. We demonstrate that the effects of gastrin-releasing peptide on the suprachiasmatic nucleus are modified by glutamate and serotonin in a manner that varies with subregions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We also show that gastrin-releasing peptide alters neuronal activity in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus.

    2. Posterior parietal cortex is critical for the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of a memory that guides attention for learning (pages 640–649)

      Felipe L. Schiffino, Vivian Zhou and Peter C. Holland

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12417

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      Consistent with many contemporary learning theories, surprising omission of expected events typically enhances the associability of remaining cues, so that they enter into new associations more readily. In 3 experiments using rats and a serial prediction task, these enhancements were eliminated by disruptions of function of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during the encoding, consolidation or retrieval of an associability memory, suggesting PPC as a substrate for associability memory.

    3. Inverted-U shaped effects of D1 dopamine receptor stimulation in the medial preoptic nucleus on sexually motivated song in male European starlings (pages 650–662)

      Lauren V. Riters, Benjamin A. Pawlisch, Cynthia A. Kelm-Nelson and Sharon A. Stevenson

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12429

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      Past studies in songbirds highlight a central role for the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) in context-appropriate vocal communication. During the breeding season, male songbirds sing primarily to attract females (sexually-motivated song) and to repel competitors (agonistically-motivated song).

  6. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. When the brain expects pain: common neural responses to pain anticipation are related to clinical pain and distress in fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis (pages 663–672)

      Christopher A. Brown, Wael El-Deredy and Anthony K. P. Jones

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12420

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      Supra-spinal processes in humans can exert a top-down enhancing effect on nociceptive processing in the brain and spinal cord. Studies have begun to suggest such influences occur in conditions such as fibromyalgia (FM), but it is not clear if this is unique to FM pain or common to other forms of chronic pain, such as that associated with osteoarthritis (OA).

    2. Consequences of inhibition of bumetanide metabolism in rodents on brain penetration and effects of bumetanide in chronic models of epilepsy (pages 673–687)

      Manuel Töpfer, Kathrin Töllner, Claudia Brandt, Friederike Twele, Sonja Bröer and Wolfgang Löscher

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12424

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      Inhibition of metabolic oxidation of the N-butyl sidechain of bumetanide by piperonyl butoxide results in less rapid elimination and, subsequently, higher plasma and brain levels and pharmacodynamic effects of bumetanide in rodents.

    3. Dysfunctional and compensatory synaptic plasticity in Parkinson's disease (pages 688–702)

      Henning Schroll, Julien Vitay and Fred H. Hamker

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12434

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      Neuro-computational simulations prove that dysfunctional synaptic plasticity in basal-ganglia pathways can explain how dopamine loss causes motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine replacement therapy is predicted to create a new balance of basal-ganglia pathways, rather than a restoration of non-Parkinsonian states. Development of cortico-thalamic fibers may explain why focused basal-ganglia lesions alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms, but do not impair performance in healthy animals.

  7. CORRIGENDUM

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
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  8. OBITUARY

    1. Top of page
    2. TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT
    3. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    5. NEUROSYSTEMS
    6. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    7. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    8. CORRIGENDUM
    9. OBITUARY
    1. Ferdinando Rossi (1960–2014) (page 704)

      Jean-Marc Fritschy, Martin Sarter and Marian Joëls

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12530

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