European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 8

April 2014

Volume 39, Issue 8

Pages 1245–1402

  1. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Role of Go/i subgroup of G proteins in olfactory signaling of Drosophila melanogaster (pages 1245–1255)

      Jennifer S. Ignatious Raja, Natalya Katanayeva, Vladimir L. Katanaev and C. Giovanni Galizia

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12481

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      Intracellular signaling in insect olfactory receptor neurons remains unclear, with both metabotropic and ionotropic components being discussed. Here, we investigated the role of heterotrimeric Go and Gi proteins using a combined behavioral, in vivo and in vitro approach.

    2. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are important for afferent synapse formation and function in the inner ear (pages 1256–1267)

      Diana Mendus, Srividya Sundaresan, Nicolas Grillet, Felix Wangsawihardja, Rose Leu, Ulrich Müller, Sherri M. Jones and Mirna Mustapha

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12486

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      We show that TSP1 and TSP2 are expressed in the cochlea, and offer the first description of their putative roles in afferent synapse development and function in the inner ear. We examined mice with deletions of TSP1, TSP2, and both (TSP1/TSP2), for inner ear development and function. Based on obtained results, we propose that TSPs play an important role in afferent synapse development and function of the inner ear.

    3. Cbln1 downregulates the formation and function of inhibitory synapses in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells (pages 1268–1280)

      Aya Ito-Ishida, Wataru Kakegawa, Kazuhisa Kohda, Eriko Miura, Shigeo Okabe and Michisuke Yuzaki

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12487

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      Cbln1 down-regulates formation and function of inhibitory synapses between Purkinje cells (PCs) and molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). We analysed MLI-PC synapses in cbln1-null mice whose excitatory synapses between PCs and parallel fibers (PFs) are significantly reduced. Histological analysis revealed that the density of MLI-PC synapses is higher in cbln1-null than wild-type mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that both amplitude and frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) were higher in cbln1-null PCs. These structural and functional abnormalities were reversed by incubation of recombinant Cbln1 in the medium in a manner dependent on the presence of glutamate receptor delta 2.

    4. Activation of α1-adrenoceptors enhances excitatory synaptic transmission via a pre- and postsynaptic protein kinase C-dependent mechanism in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats (pages 1281–1293)

      Fei Luo, Hua Tang, Bao-ming Li and Si-hai Li

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12495

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      Little is known about the mechanism of modulation on synaptic transmission by α1-AR in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that α1-AR activation enhances glutamatergic transmission in the mPFC by increasing the glutamate release from presynaptic terminals, via PKC-dependent mechanism, and by enhancing the responsiveness of postsynaptic AMPA-Rs and NMDA-Rs, likely via Gq/PLC/PKC signaling pathway.

    5. The vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons of a ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rat exhibit heterogeneous firing properties and the expression of various neurotransmitter receptors (pages 1294–1313)

      Yue Zhang, Ryosuke Kaneko, Yuchio Yanagawa and Yasuhiko Saito

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12509

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      Vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons were identified via retrograde labeling with dextran-Alexa 488 in ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rats, in which cholinergic neurons specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato. These cholinergic neurons exhibited the preferential AHP profiles and firing patterns, which can be used for characterising the neurons.

  2. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. Differential role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell and core in nicotine seeking in rats (pages 1314–1322)

      Manoranjan S. D'Souza and Athina Markou

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12491

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      Nicotine, a major psychoactive component of tobacco smoke, increases glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAcc shell and core subdivisions in nicotine-dependent behaviors has not been studied.

  3. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. A visual or tactile signal makes auditory speech detection more efficient by reducing uncertainty (pages 1323–1331)

      Bosco S. Tjan, Ewen Chao and Lynne E. Bernstein

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12471

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      When acoustic speech is buried in noise, a task-irrelevant visual and/or vibrotactile stimulus can enhance its detectability. Within an ideal observer model, enhancement is attributable to reduced noise intrinsic to the perceptual system and/or improved statistical sampling efficiency. Experiments here support only improved efficiency via uncertainty reduction and offer no evidence for change in internal noise. This pattern of results argues against enhancement due to multisensory integration.

    2. Functional connectivity-based parcellation of the human sensorimotor cortex (pages 1332–1342)

      Xiangyu Long, Dominique Goltz, Daniel S. Margulies, Till Nierhaus and Arno Villringer

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12473

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      Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been successfully employed to obtain somatotopic maps of the human sensorimotor cortex. Here, we showed through direct comparison that a similar functional map can be obtained, independently of a task, by performing a connectivity-based parcellation of the sensorimotor cortex based on resting-state fMRI.

    3. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces the cost of performing a cognitive task on gait and postural control (pages 1343–1348)

      Junhong Zhou, Ying Hao, Ye Wang, Azizah Jor'dan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang and Brad Manor

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12492

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      This proof-of-concept, double-blind study is designed to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the ‘cost’ of performing a secondary cognitive task on gait and postural control in healthy young adults. Twenty adults aged 22 ± 2 years completed two separate double-blind visits in which gait and postural control were assessed immediately before and after a 20-min session of either real or sham tDCS (1.5 mA) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    4. Event-related potential and eye tracking evidence of the developmental dynamics of face processing (pages 1349–1362)

      Emilie Meaux, Nadia Hernandez, Isabelle Carteau-Martin, Joëlle Martineau, Catherine Barthélémy, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault and Magali Batty

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12496

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      Although the wide neural network and specific processes related to faces have been revealed, the process by which face-processing ability develops is still unclear. An interest in faces appears early in infancy, and developmental findings to date have suggested a long maturation process of the mechanisms involved in face processing.

    5. Sustained brain activation supporting stop-signal task performance (pages 1363–1369)

      M. E. Hughes, T. W. Budd, W. R. Fulham, S. Lancaster, W. Woods, S. L. Rossell and P. T. Michie

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12497

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      On-going performance of the stop-signal paradigm was associated with sustained activation in a right dominant network that included right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex. This finding indicates that this fronto-parietal network is critical for supporting stop goal processes during on-going performance of the stop-signal paradigm.

    6. Decision and action planning signals in human posterior parietal cortex during delayed perceptual choices (pages 1370–1383)

      Annalisa Tosoni, Maurizio Corbetta, Cinzia Calluso, Giorgia Committeri, Giovanni Pezzulo, G. L. Romani and Gaspare Galati

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12511

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      Functional MRI in healthy humans was used to study the process of accumulating noisy sensory evidence over time to guide a perceptual decision. When decision outcomes were reported through predefined actions, the most reliable neural signatures of the accumulation process were found in sensory-motor parietal regions involved in planning and executing the actions used to report the decision. However, decision- and action-related signals within these regions could be dissociated.

  4. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    1. Top of page
    2. MOLECULAR AND SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS
    3. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    4. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    5. DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    1. Intersaccadic drift velocity is sensitive to short-term hypobaric hypoxia (pages 1384–1390)

      Leandro L. Di Stasi, Raúl Cabestrero, Michael B. McCamy, Francisco Ríos, Andrés Catena, Pilar Quirós, Jose A. Lopez, Carolina Saez, Stephen L. Macknik and Susana Martinez-Conde

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12482

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      Pilots and flight engineers experienced a simulated ascent to 22 000 feet, and subsequent short-term hypobaric hypoxia, in an altitude training chamber (each crew member underwent hypoxia for up to 3.25 minutes without supplemental oxygen). We measured their eye movements before and after hypoxia. Intersaccadic drift velocity increased after hypoxia exposure, suggesting that acute hypoxia diminishes eye stability.

    2. Ligustilide attenuates inflammatory pain via inhibition of NFκB-mediated chemokines production in spinal astrocytes (pages 1391–1402)

      Lin-Xia Zhao, Bao-Chun Jiang, Xiao-Bo Wu, De-Li Cao and Yong-Jing Gao

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12502

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      Repeated treatment with ligustilide, either before or after CFA injection, attenuated CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Ligustilide decreased CFA-induced chemokine (KC and MCP-1) expression via inhibiton of NFκB in spinal astrocytes. The data suggest a new application of ligustilide for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain.

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