European Journal of Neuroscience

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 9

May 2014

Volume 39, Issue 9

Pages 1403–1550


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      Commentary on Featured article
    2. Featured Article
      Diverse subthreshold cross-modal sensory interactions in the thalamic reticular nucleus: implications for new pathways of cross-modal attentional gating function (pages 1405–1418)

      Akihisa Kimura

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12545

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      Interactions between visual and auditory inputs were examined in thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) cells of anesthetised rats using juxta-cellular recording and labeling techniques. Visual or auditory responses were modulated by noise burst or light stimuli in the majority of cells. Few bimodal cells were found. Modulated cells sent axonal projections to first- or higher-order thalamic nuclei. The results suggest that the TRN constitutes neural pathways of cross-modal attentional gating function.

    3. EphA4 is associated with multiple cell types in the marmoset primary visual cortex throughout the lifespan (pages 1419–1428)

      Yona Goldshmit, Jihane Homman-Ludiye and James A. Bourne

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12514

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      Ephs form the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. They interact with the membrane bound ligands – ephrins, to control crucial aspects of brain development.

    4. The effect of air puff stress on c-Fos expression in rat hypothalamus and brainstem: central circuitry mediating sympathoexcitation and baroreflex resetting (pages 1429–1438)

      Teri M. Furlong, Lachlan M. McDowall, Jouji Horiuchi, Jaimie W. Polson and Roger A. L. Dampney

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12521

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      Psychological stress evokes increases in sympathetic activity and blood pressure, which is due in part to an upward resetting of the baroreceptor-sympathetic reflex. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is a key site for modulation of the baroreceptor reflex. In this study we identified neurons in the hypothalamus and midbrain that project to the NTS and are also activated by a psychological stressor (air puff), and may therefore regulate stress-evoked resetting of the baroreceptor reflex.

    5. BDNF released during neuropathic pain potentiates NMDA receptors in primary afferent terminals (pages 1439–1454)

      Wenling Chen, Wendy Walwyn, Helena S. Ennes, Hyeyoung Kim, James A. McRoberts and Juan Carlos G. Marvizón

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12516

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      We found that NMDA receptors in primary afferents are potentiated by BDNF acting on a truncated form of trkB receptors. In a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain, the ability of these NMDA receptors to induce substance P release was dramatically increased by BNDF released from activated microglia. These findings demonstrate a pathway linking microglia activation, BDNF release, truncated trkB receptors, NMDA receptor potentiation and substance P release during the onset of neuropathic pain.

    6. Specific activation of the paralemniscal pathway during nociception (pages 1455–1464)

      Laura Frangeul, Cesar Porrero, Maria Garcia-Amado, Benedetta Maimone, Madlyne Maniglier, Francisco Clascá and Denis Jabaudon

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12524

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      Two main neuronal pathways connect facial whiskers to the somatosensory cortex in rodents: the lemniscal pathway relayed in the ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPM), and the paralemniscal pathway relayed in the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po). Here, we report that while lemniscal neurons readily responds to neonatal infraorbital nerve sectioning or environmental exploration, paralemniscal pathway neurons are specifically activated upon noxious stimulation of the whisker pad, revealing a nociceptive function for paralemniscal neurons in vivo.

    7. The role of the substantia nigra in posture control (pages 1465–1473)

      Joseph W. Barter, Stephen Castro, Tatyana Sukharnikova, Mark A. Rossi and Henry H. Yin

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12540

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      Using wireless multi-electrode recording, we measured single unit activity from GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra as unrestrained mice stood on an elevated platform while introducing continuous postural disturbances in the roll plane. We found two major types of neurons: those activated by tilt to the left side of the body and suppressed by tilt to the right side, and others activated by tilt to the right side and suppressed by tilt to the left side.

    8. Subthalamic nucleus lesion improves cell survival and functional recovery following dopaminergic cell transplantation in parkinsonian rats (pages 1474–1484)

      Karina Kohn Cordeiro, Joacir Graciolli Cordeiro, Luciano Lopes Furlanetti, Salazar Joanna Alejandra Garcia, Sérgio Bernardo Tenório, Christian Winkler, Máté Daniel Döbrössy and Guido Nikkhah

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12541

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      Subthalamic nucleus (STN) modulation is currently the gold standard in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases refractory to medication. On the other hand, cell transplantation is a tissue restorative approach and a promising strategy in the treatment of PD.

    9. Task-dependent changes in late inhibitory and disinhibitory actions within the primary motor cortex in humans (pages 1485–1490)

      Alexandre Caux-Dedeystère, Mélanie Rambour, Alain Duhamel, François Cassim, Philippe Derambure and Hervé Devanne

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12505

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      We showed that late inhibitory and disinhibitory processes of the primary motor cortex are modified in humans when going from isolated index finger abduction to thumb-index precision grip. Disinhibition occurred earlier and was more intense during precision grip than during index abduction. Our data suggest that disinhibition might reflect adaptation of neural circuits excitability to the functional requirements of the motor task.


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    1. A bias-free two-alternative forced choice procedure to examine intersensory illusions applied to the ventriloquist effect by flashes and averted eye-gazes (pages 1491–1498)

      Jean Vroomen and Jeroen J. Stekelenburg

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12525

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      Commonly used measures of multisensory illusions are often contaminated by biases. We developed a new bias-free two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure. With this procedure, we found that displaced flashes, but not averted eye-gazes of a cartoon face, illusorily shifted the apparent location of a sound (ventriloquism). An EEG-study validated that only flash-induced shifts of a sound evoked a mismatch negativity (MMN). Our method can be applied to many other intersensory illusions.

    2. Modulation of early cortical processing during divided attention to non-contiguous locations (pages 1499–1507)

      Hans-Peter Frey, Anita M. Schmid, Jeremy W. Murphy, Sophie Molholm, Edmund C. Lalor and John J. Foxe

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12523

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      We often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non-contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations.

    3. Stimulus duration and diversity do not reverse the advantage for superordinate-level representations: the animal is seen before the bird (pages 1508–1516)

      Marlène Poncet and Michèle Fabre-Thorpe

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12513

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      Basic-level categorization has long been thought to be the entry-level for object representations. We show in this article that superordinate categories (animals and vehicles) are accessed faster than basic categories (birds and cars). This superordinate advantage is observed regardless of presentation time, stimulus diversity or type of response. Thus, our results suggest that visual representations of object categories are accessed at a broad level earlier than at a finer scale.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Localizing evoked and induced responses to faces using magnetoencephalography (pages 1517–1527)

      Gavin Perry and Krish D. Singh

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12520

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      We sought to characterise best practice for measuring face-specific responses using MEG beamforming, and to determine whether the results produced by the beamformer match evidence from other modalities. Gamma-band enhancement to faces relative to phase scrambled control stimuli was found in occipital and fusiform face areas, but was restricted to 50–90 Hz bandwidth. The M170 ERF was also enhanced to faces in fusiform face area, while the M220 ERF was enhanced for scrambled stimuli vs. faces in the parieto-occipital sulcus.

    5. Object size modulates fronto-parietal activity during reaching movements (pages 1528–1537)

      Vincenza Tarantino, Teresa De Sanctis, Elisa Straulino, Chiara Begliomini and Umberto Castiello

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12512

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      This study investigated the effect of object size on reaching movement, by simultaneously recording kinematics and event-related potentials (ERPs). Both measures varied according to the size of the object. Specifically, ERPs were modulated during both action planning and execution, in parietal (P300) and fronto-central (m-N400) sites. The results revealed the temporal dynamics of the activity of areas within the fronto-parietal network, which integrates visual information with motor programs.

    6. Task-related preparatory modulations multiply with acoustic processing in monkey auditory cortex (pages 1538–1550)

      Roohollah Massoudi, Marc M. Van Wanrooij, Sigrid M. C. I. Van Wetter, Huib Versnel and A. John Van Opstal

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12532

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      We characterised task-related top-down signals in monkey auditory cortex cells, by comparing activity during passive sound exposure to activity during a predictable and unpredictable reaction-time task for a variety of spectral-temporally modulated broadband sounds. The task-related signals were locked to the animal's reaction time, but invariant to the spectral and temporal acoustic modulations. Our findings demonstrate that the task-related and the acoustically evoked signal interact multiplicatively.