Large surface areas covered with man-made materials are subject to pedogenetic evolution. However, pedogenetic processes in the resulting Technosols are seldom fully assessed. This work was conducted to identify and characterize the processes occurring on deposits of industrial technogenic materials. A former settling pond of the iron and steel industry where a forest has established since termination of the industrial activity approximately 50 years ago was chosen. A 2-m deep pit was opened, and a series of layers of the soil profile were sampled. The macro- and micro-structure were studied, and soil samples were analysed for structural, chemical and mineralogical assessment (chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies coupled with energy dispersion spectrometry). Results showed that the profile was composed of a succession of sub-horizontal layers arranged in two groups according to their structure and composition, linked to the composition of the industrial effluent. Group 1 was composed of iron-, carbonate- and aluminosilicate-rich layers exhibiting a compact structure. Group 2 contained manganese-rich layers with a friable structure. Pedogenetic processes of various intensities were detected at different depths. Besides an accumulation of organic matter at the surface, transformations of minerals were recorded all along the soil profile, with weathering, leaching and precipitation of new phases. Phenomena occurred primarily in specific zones, such as cracks and interfaces between two layers. In conclusion, the soil maintained characteristics of the original industrial material and displayed several stages of pedogenesis, which were controlled chronologically by climatic and biological factors.