• Asymmetrical competition;
  • frequency dependence;
  • heterospecific pollen transfer;
  • Limnanthes ;
  • pollination;
  • vernal pools


A plant species immigrating into a community may experience a rarity disadvantage due to competition for the services of pollinators. These negative reproductive interactions have the potential to lead to competitive displacement or exclusion of a species from a site. In this study, we used one- and two-species arrays of potted plants to test for density and frequency dependence in pollinator-mediated and above-ground intraspecific and interspecific competition between two species of Limnanthes that have overlapping ranges, but rarely occur in close sympatry. There were asymmetric competitive effects; the species responded differently to their frequency within 16-plant replacement series arrays. Limnanthes douglasii rosea experienced stronger reductions in lifetime and per-flower fertility, likely due to pollinator-mediated competition with Limnanthes alba. This effect may be linked to asymmetrical competition through heterospecific pollen transfer. This study demonstrates that pollinator-mediated competition may discourage establishment of L. d. rosea in sites already occupied by its congener.