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The Effects of Read-Aloud Accommodations for Students With and Without Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis


  • Hongli Li

    Corresponding author
    1. Georgia State University
    • Hongli Li, Assistant Professor of Research, Measurement, and Statistics, Department of Educational Policy Studies, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3977, Atlanta GA 30303;

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  • A previous version of this paper was presented at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), San Francisco, CA.


Read-aloud accommodations have been proposed as a way to help remove barriers faced by students with disabilities in reading comprehension. Many empirical studies have examined the effects of read-aloud accommodations; however, the results are mixed. With a variance-known hierarchical linear modeling approach, based on 114 effect sizes from 23 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of read-aloud accommodations for students with and without disabilities. In general, both students with disabilities and students without disabilities benefited from the read-aloud accommodations, and the accommodation effect size for students with disabilities was significantly larger than the effect size for students without disabilities. Further, this meta-analysis reveals important factors that influence the effects of read-aloud accommodations. For instance, the accommodation effect was significantly stronger when the subject area was reading than when the subject area was math. The effect of read-aloud accommodations was also significantly stronger when the test was read by human proctors than when it was read by video/audio players or computers. Finally, the implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.