Camera trap surveys to evaluate pest animal control operations



Many camera trap surveys aiming to detect the effects of management actions on pest animal populations are not as useful as they could be, because they do not produce informative results. We used mixed effects models, signed ranks tests and occupancy models to examine changes in the activity and occurrence of European red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) in areas subjected to repeated fox management operations. In agricultural land, mixed effects models identified a decline in fox activity after baiting in 1 year, but not the next. Occupancy models revealed a decrease in fox occurrence in a National Park following control operations. These methods, combined with appropriate survey designs, could greatly enhance the value of many pest animal surveys conducted by management agencies.