• hymenopterous parasitoid;
  • independent-founding;
  • Neotropical region;
  • rates of parasitization


Although most polistine wasp species are found in the Neotropical region, mainly in Brazil, only a very limited number of South American parasitoids or parasites are known to exist. We assessed the frequency of a hymenopterous parasitoid, Pachysomoides sp. (Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae), in the nests of the Brazilian independent-founding wasp Polistes satan and compared the rates of the parasitization of P. satan by Pachysomoides sp. between the dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. Pachysomoides sp. larvae were seen to feed on P. satan pupa and were found in both the upper and lower parts of the host pupal cell (ca. 10 individuals in each host pupal cell). Approximately one-third of the pupal cells in the P. satan colonies were parasitized in the dry season, whereas there were no parasitized pupal cells in the wet season. Consequently, the rates of parasitization by Pachysomoides sp. were significantly greater during the dry season than during the wet season due to unknown reasons.