In the context of conservation biology, we have searched for the most influential characteristics of urban parks on ecological diversity. In this study, therefore, we studied the ant community of 24 parks in two cities of Southern Spain (Cordoba and Seville). In total, 46 species were found. Abundant and widely distributed species were synanthropic ones, such as Lasius grandis, Pheidole pallidula or Tapinoma nigerrimum, and exotic species such as Cardiocondyla mauritanica. However some parks also harbored natural habitat-preferring species. Park size, shape and distance to city outskirts were the most important predictors of species richness and diversity. Likewise, park age influenced the composition of the ant fauna.