• life cycle;
  • Nipponaphidini;
  • overwintering;
  • social aphids;
  • social insects


This paper examines the life history of a generation of galls created by the aphid Quadrartus yoshinomiyai (Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini) on its primary host plant, Distylium racemosum. First-instar fundatrix nymphs of Q. yoshinomiyai initiated galls on stems of developing shoots in early April and incipient enclosed galls were found from later the same month. The galls lasted for up to 14 months, during which they grew to maturity, opened in early or mid-April of the following year and dried up by the end of June. First-instar fundatrix nymphs were found on winter buds, indicating that they hatched from eggs in autumn and overwintered as nymphs. These results suggest that Q. yoshinomiyai has a three-year life cycle.