SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Barbosa P, Baltensweiler W (1987) Phenotypic plasticity and herbivore outbreaks. In: Barbosa P , Schultz JC (eds) Insect Outbreaks, pp 469503. Academic Press, New York.
  • Bauce E, Crepin M, Carisey N (1994) Spruce budworm growth, development and food utilization on young and old balsam fir trees. Oecologia 97, 499507.
  • Blais JR (1958) Effects of defoliation by spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) on radial growth at breast height of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Forestry Chronicle 34, 3947.
  • Blais JR (1965) Spruce budworm Outbreaks in the past three centuries in the Laurentide Park, Quebec. Forest Science 11, 130137.
  • Bonan GB, Shugart HH (1989) Environmental factors and ecological process in boreal forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20, 128.
  • Boulanger Y, Arseneault D (2004) Spruce budworm outbreaks in eastern Quebec over the last 450 years. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34, 10351043.
  • Bradshaw WE, Hopzapfel CM, Kleckner CA, Hard JJ (1997) Heritability of developmental time and protandry in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomya Smithii. Ecology 78, 969976.
  • Carisey N, Bauce E (2002) Does nutrition-related stress carry over to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) progeny? Bulletin of Entomological Research 92, 101108.
  • Carroll SP, Hendry AP, Reznick DN, Fox CW (2007) Evolution on ecological time-scales. Functional Ecology 21, 387393.
  • Chen Z, Clancy MK, Kolb T (2003) Variation in budburst phenology of Douglas-fir related to western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fitness. Journal of Economic Entomology 96, 377387.
  • Delisle J, Royer L, Bernier-Cardou M, Bauce E, Labrecque A (2009) The combined effect of photoperiod and temperature on egg dormancy in an island and a mainland population of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 133, 232243.
  • Dupont A, Bélanger L, Bousquet J (1991) Relationship between balsam fir vulnerability to spruce budworm and ecological site conditions of fir stands in central Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21, 17521759.
  • Ehrlich AH, Ehrlich PR (1978) Reproductive strategies in the butterflies: I. mating frequency, plugging, and egg number. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51, 666697.
  • Ehrlich PR, Raven PH (1964) Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18, 586608.
  • Falconer DS, MacKay TFC (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Prentice Hall, London.
  • Feeny P (1970) Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51, 565581.
  • Fisher RA (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon Press, Dover Publications, New York.
  • Fitzgerald TD (1995) The Tent Caterpillars. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Fleming RA, Voney WJA (1995) Effect of climate change on insect defoliator population processes in Canada's boreal forest: some plausible scenarios. Water Air and Soil Pollution 82, 445454.
  • Gray DR, Ravlin FW, Braine JA (2001) Diapause in the gypsy moth: a model of inhibition and development. Journal of Insect Physiology 47, 173184.
  • Hammerschmidt K, Deines P, Wilson AJ, Rolff J (2012) Quantitative genetics of immunity and life history under different photoperiods. Heredity 108, 569576.
  • Harvey GT (1977) Mean weight and rearing performance of successive egg clusters of eastern spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist 109, 487496.
  • Harvey GT (1983) Environmental and genetic effects on mean egg weight in spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist 115, 11091117.
  • Harvey GT (1985) Egg weight as a factor in the overwintering survival of spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae. Canadian Entomologist 117, 14511146.
  • Hendry AP, Kinnison MT (1999) The pace of modern life: measuring rates of contemporary microevolution. Evolution 53, 16371653.
  • Herms DA, Mattson WJ (1992) The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. The Quarterly Review of Biology 67, 283335.
  • Hoffmann AA, Merilä J (1999) Heritable variation and evolution under favorable and unfavourable conditions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 96101.
  • Jermy T (1984) Evolution of insect/host plant relationships. American Naturalist 124, 606630.
  • Jones JS (1987) The heritability of fitness: bad news for good genes? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2, 3538.
  • Kamrul AMD, Rahman SM (2008) Genetic variability and correlation analysis in hybrids of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. for egg characters. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University 27, 1316.
  • Kause A, Saloniemi I, Morin JP, Haukioja E, Hanhimaki S, Ruohomaki K (2001) Seasonally varying diet quality and the quantitative genetic of development time and body size in birch feeding insects. Evolution 55, 19922001.
  • Klein TW, Defries JC, Finkbeiner CT (1973) Heritability and genetic correlation: standard error of estimates and sample size. Behavior Genetics 3, 355364.
  • Koller CN, Leonard DE (1981) Comparison of energy budgets for spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) on balsam fir and white spruce. Oecologia 49, 1420.
  • Kumbasli M, Bauce É, Rochefort S, Crépin M (2011) Effects of tree age and stand thinning related variations in balsam fir secondary compounds on spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana development, growth and food utilization. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13, 131141.
  • Lawrence RK, Mattson WJ, Haack RA (1997) White spruce and the spruce budworm: defining the phenological window of susceptibility. Canadian Entomologist 129, 291318.
  • Long TAF, Miller PM, Stewart AD, Rice WR (2009) Estimating the heritability of female lifetime fecundity in a locally adapted Drosophila melanogaster population. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 637643.
  • Mattson WJ, Haack RA, Lawrence RK, Slocum SS (1991) Considering the nutritional ecology of the spruce budworm in its management. Forest Ecology and Management 39, 183210.
  • McMorran A (1965) A synthetic diet for the spruce budworm. Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist 97, 5862.
  • Mousseau TA, Roff DA (1987) Natural selection and the heritability of fitness components. Heredity 59, 181197.
  • Narasimharaju R, Govindan R, Ashoka J, Rayar SG (1990) Genetic variability for quantitative traits in silk-worm, Bombyx mori (L). Entomon 15, 197201.
  • Nealis VG (2003) Host-plant relationships and comparative ecology of conifer-feeding budworms (Choristoneura spp.). In: McManus ML , Liebhold AM (eds) Ecology, Survey and Management of Forest Insects, 1–5 September 2002, Krakow, Poland. pp 6874. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA.
  • Nealis VG, Régnière J (2004) Insect-host relationships influencing disturbance by the spruce budworm in a boreal mixed wood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34, 18701882.
  • Ollivier L (1974) La Régression Parent-Descendant dans le cas de descendances subdivisees en familles de taille inégale. Biometrics 30, 5966.
  • Potti J, Merino S (1994) Heritability estimates and maternal effects on tarsus length in pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Oecologia 100, 331338.
  • Price T, Schluter D (1991) On the low heritability of life-history traits. Evolution 45, 853861.
  • Rauchfuss J, Ziegler SS (2011) The geography of spruce budworm in eastern North America. Geography Compass 5/8, 564580.
  • Régnière J (1987) Temperature-dependent development of eggs and larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and simulation of its seasonal history. Canadian Entomologist 119, 717728.
  • Régnière J, Duval P (1998) Survie hivernale des populations de la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), en conditions naturelles. Canadian Entomologist 130, 1326.
  • Robertson JL (1985) Handbook of Insect Rearing. Vol. II. Elsevier Sciences Publishers, New York.
  • Roff DA (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. Chapman and Hall, New York.
  • Roff DA (2000) Trade-offs between growth and reproduction: an analysis of the quantitative genetic evidence. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13, 434445.
  • Royama T (1984) Population dynamics of the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana. Ecological Monographs 54, 429462.
  • Sanders CJ (1991) Biology of North American spruce budworm. In: Van der Geest LPS , Evenhuis HH (eds) Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, pp 579620. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.
  • SAS Institute (1988) SAS User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Sgrò CM, Hoffmann AA (2004) Genetic correlations, tradeoffs and environmental variation. Heredity 93, 241248.
  • Singh TM, Bhat MM, Khan MA (2011) Critical analysis of correlation and heritability phenomenon in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 2, 347353.
  • Tanaka Y (1991) Heritability estimates of life history traits in small white butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora. Researches on Population Ecology 33, 323329.
  • van Asch M, Julkunen-Tiito R, Visser ME (2010) Maternal effects in an insect herbivore as a mechanism to adapt to host plant phenology. Functional Ecology 24, 11031109.
  • van Asch M, Van Tienderen PH, Holleman LJM, Visser ME (2007) Predicting adaptation of phenology in response to climate change, an insect herbivore example. Global Change Biology, 13, 15961604.
  • van Asch M, Visser ME (2007) Phenology of forest caterpillars and their host trees: the importance of synchrony. Annual Review of Entomology 52, 3755.
  • Volney WJA (1999) Genetic and ecological controls of post-diapause development in Choristoneura. In: Lieutier F, Matton WJ, Wagner MR (eds) Physiology and Genetics of Tree-phytophage Interactions. International Symposium, 31 August-5 September 1999, pp 187–198. Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Gujan.
  • Wilczek AM, Burphardt LT, Cobb AR, Cooper MD, Welch SM, Schmitt J (2010) Genetic and physiological bases for phenological responses to current and predicted climates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365, 31293147.