SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • fauna;
  • key;
  • new record;
  • Strongylophthalmyia;
  • taxonomy

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

Eight species of the Strongylophthalmyiidae are reported from Papua New Guinea. Of these, five species (Strongylophthalmyia gigantica sp. nov., S. papuana sp. nov., S. rubella sp. nov., S. sedlaceki sp. nov. and S. shatalkini sp. nov.) are described as new to science. Strongylophthalmyia puncticollis Frey is recorded for the first time from Papua New Guinea. Faunistic remarks, a key to the species of the Strongylophthalmyia in Papua New Guinea and a world checklist are provided.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

The Strongylophthalmyiidae are small acalyptrate flies that are slender and somewhat flattened. This family includes two genera, Strongylophthalmyia Heller and Nartshukia Shatalkin, of which all species except one are represented in Strongylophthalmyia. The Palearctic and Oriental species of the Strongylophthalmyiidae have been studied by Zetterstedt (1847), Walker (1860), Hendel (1913), de Meijere (1914, 1919), Malloch (1929), Frey (1928, 1935, 1956), Hennig (1940, 1941), Steyskal (1971, 1977), Krivosheina (1981, 1984), Shatalkin (1981, 1993, 1996), Iwasa (1992, 1995, 1998), Yang and Wang (1992, 1998), and Papp et al. (2006). They comprise 40 Oriental and eight Palearctic species. In the Nearctic region, two species are known to occur (Melander 1920; Johnson 1921; Barber 2006). However, in the Australasian and Oceanian regions this family is poorly understood with only four Oriental species listed from Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Fiji in the catalog by Evenhuis (1989) and undescribed specimens from Australia illustrated in Marshall (2012; p.476, fig. 3).

Recently, we examined some specimens of the Strongylophthalmyiidae deposited in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA and the Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia. As a result, we obtained some new knowledge on this family in Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe five new species and give one new species record for the country, and provide some faunistic remarks and a key to the known species of Strongylophthalmyiidae in Papua New Guinea.

Materials and methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

Almost all specimens examined were collected by Malaise trap and dried specimens were pinned or glued to points. Male genitalia were examined after maceration in 10% KOH. Specimens were examined from material deriving from the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (BPBM), and the Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia (AMS). Holotypes and paratypes of the new species described here are deposited in BPBM. Morphological terminology follows d'Assis-Fonseca (1968) and McAlpine (1981), except that we use the term “postpedicel” for “ antennal flagellomere 1” (Stuckenberg 1999). The following abbreviation is used for the most frequently cited collector: J Sedlacek (JS). Abbreviations used in the descriptions and figures are as follows: Head: ar, arista; dp, dorsal process; fr, frontal setulae; oc, ocellar setae; or, orbital setae; poc, postocellar setae; vti, inner vertical setae; vte, outer vertical setae; pavt, paravertical setae. Thorax: dc, dorsocentral setae; anepst, anepisternal setae; npl, notopleural setae; sa, supra-alar setae; pa, postalar setae; ap sc, apical scutellar setae. Male terminalia: aed, aedeagus; aed apod, aedeagal apodeme; cer, cercus; ep, epandrium; epiph, epiphallus; h, hypandrium; pm, paramere; s, surstylus; ss, sclerotized strips.

Taxonomy

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

Genus Strongylophthalmyia Heller

Strongylophthalmyia Heller, 1902, Wien. Ent. Ztg., 21:226. Type species: Chyliza utsulata Zetterstedt, 1847, Dipt. Scand., 6:2427.

Diagnosis. Small, slender, about 2.5–7.5 mm in body length. Head rounded in profile; gena narrow; male postpedicel sometimes dorsally with a peculiar process just anterior to the base of arista; female postpedicel with only slender and bare arista; palpus clavate or elongate elliptical-shaped and also often modified in male, with black scales or thick setulae; 3–5 fr (often hair-like and small), 3 or, 1 oc, 1 vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt. Thorax somewhat flattened and yellow to black, clothed with yellowish hairs; 1 anepst, 2 npl, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1–2 dc, 1 ap sc. Legs slender, normally without stout spines; wing with a distinct costal break just before end of subcosta and often with diffused maculae medially or apically, and rarely wholly infuscated; halter whitish to yellow. Abdomen slender and somewhat flattened. Male terminalia: surstylus fused to epandrium; cercus soft; aedeagal apodeme long; aedeagus long and slender, and sometimes with sclerotized apical structure; parameres slightly sclerotized; hypandrium elongate, ventrally slender, and with a pair of sclerotized strips medially connected to long aedeagal apodeme. Female terminalia: quite elongate, slender and not sclerotized; one sclerotized spermatheca present.

Strongylophthalmyia fascipes (Walker, 1860)

Sepsis fascipes Walker, 1860: 163.

Strongylophthalmyia fascipes: Steyskal, 1971: 141.

Specimens examined. Papua New Guinea: 1♀, Wau (1200 m a.s.l.), 7.vii.1961, JS; 1♂, same locality, 25.x.1965, JS; 1♀, same locality, 4.ix.1961, JS; 1♂, Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), 21.i.1961, JS;1♀, same locality, 13.x.1961, JS; 1♂, same locality, 24.ix.1965, JS; (all BPBM); 1♂, Bainyik, 21.xii.1963, DK McAlpine (AMS); 3♀, Wau, Morobe District (1200 m a.s.l.), 11.ix.1961, JS; 1♀, Markham River (60 m a.s.l.), 8.viii.1964, JS; 1♀, NE Madang District, Wanuma (600–720 m a.s.l.), viii.1968, NLH Kraus (all BPBM); 1♀, Kokoda, Northern District, 10.xii.1972, GA Holloway (AMS).

Distribution. Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua) and Papua New Guinea (Evenhuis 1989).

Strongylophthalmyia gigantica sp. nov

Female (Fig. 1). Head (Figs 2, 3): eye brown; frons black except for yellow anterior margin; face brown; parafacialia narrow and yellow with silvery dust; gena about 1/10 height of eye and black with silvery dust; postgena broad and black with silvery dust anteriorly; occiput black and shining; postpedicel yellow and shorter than its width, clothed with white hairs; arista bare and long, about 3 times as long as length of postpedicel; palpus (Fig. 4) elongate elliptical-shaped and yellow, clothed with yellow hair-like setulae; proboscis black and stout; 3 fr (hair-like and white); 3 or (posterior one very short and white), 1 oc, 1 vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt (white). Thorax: mesonotum black and shining, clothed with setulae; postpronotum brown; all pleura, scutellum and metanotum black and shining; proepisternum clothed with long black hair-like setulae; anepisternum and anepimeron sparsely with short hair-like setulae; katepisternum clothed with short setulae; 1 anepst, 2 npl, 1sa, 1 pa, 1 dc, 1 ap sc. Wing (Fig. 5): wholly infuscated smoky brown, darker brown anteriorly; vein R2+3 slightly curved apically and its end beyond basal three-fourths of whole length of costa; crossvein r-m situated at basal one-third of discal cell; veins R4+5 and M1+2 slightly convergent in apical part; upper squama black with long black hairs marginally; halter wholly black. Legs: all coxae and femora dark brown; fore tibia yellow; mid and hind tibiae brown to dark brown and yellow apically; all tarsi yellowish. Abdomen: somewhat flat; segment V constricted posteriorly; segments VI and VII more slender; tergites black and shining, clothed with setulae; sternites dark brown, except for yellow basal part of sternite I; ovipositor very slender and elongate.

figure

Figure 1–5. Strongylophthalmyia gigantica sp. nov. (holotype; female). 1 Habitus, left lateral view; 2 head, anterolateral view; 3 head, left lateral view; 4 palpus, left lateral view; 5 right wing, dorsal view. Scale bars: photographs, 1.0 mm; illustrations, 0.1 mm.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Length. body, 7.5 mm; wing, 5.4 mm.

Male. Unknown.

Holotype (BPBM17,628). ♀, Cardomam (1100 m a.s.l.), Simbu P., Karimui, Papua New Guinea, 9.v.1984, JW Ismay.

Distribution. Papua New Guinea.

Etymology. This species is named for the distinctively large body size of the holotype.

Remarks. Using the key in Steyskal (1971), this new species keys to S. brunneipennis (de Meijere) from Java because both species possess infuscated wings and black halteres. However, S. gigantica can be separated from S. brunneipennis by the dark brown coxae (coxae yellow in S. brunneipennis). It is otherwise easily distinguishable from other species by its particularly large body size (almost twice the size of the other species in the genus).

Strongylophthalmyia nigriventris Frey, 1928

Strongylophthalmyia nigriventris Frey, 1928: 101 (as lutea var.).

Strongylophthalmyia nigriventris: Steyskal, 1971: 144; Evenhuis, 1989: 472.

Specimens examined. Papua New Guinea: 1♀, Wau, Morobe District (1250 m), 4.ii.1963, JS. Philippines: 1♀, Camarines Sur, Mt. Iriga (500–600 m a.s.l.), 24.iv.1962, HM Torrevillas (all BPBM).

Distribution. Philippines, Malaysia (Sarawak), and Papua New Guinea (Evenhuis, 1989).

Strongylophthalmyia papuana sp. nov

Male. Head (Fig. 6): eye blackish brown; frons black and shining; face brown; parafacialia silvery shining; gena narrow, about 1/20 height of eye and black with silvery dust on dorsal margin; postgena broad and black with silvery dust anteriorly; occiput black and shining; postpedicel (Fig. 6) oval, yellow in basal half and brown in apical half; arista bare and long, over 2 times as long as length of postpedicel; palpus (Fig. 7) clavate and dark brown, clothed with thick setulae apically; proboscis black and stout; 5 fr (hair-like and short); 3 or (posterior one short), 1 oc, 1 vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt. Thorax: mesonotum black and subshining, sparsely clothed with short setulae; postpronotum and anterior spiracle brown; all pleura black; proepisternum densely clothed with long yellow hairs; posterior part of anepisternum and anepimeron clothed with hairs; katepisternum glossy and with several hairs posteriorly; 1 anepst, 2 npl, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1 dc (anterior one small), 1 ap sc. Wing (Fig. 8): hyaline, medianly with brown broad transverse band; R2+3 vein slightly curved apically and its end just situated at basal three-fourths of whole length of costa; r-m crossvein situated just on basal one-fourth of discal cell; R4+5 and M1+2 gradually convergent in apical part; upper squama brown, with yellow hairs marginally; halter yellow, darkened basally. Legs: coxae, femora, and tibiae dark brown; hind trochanter (Fig. 9) with a posterior round process; hind femur (Fig. 9) basally with a round posteroventral process accompanied by 3–4 ventral setulae, and a smaller sub-basal setose process on the posterior surface; 1st tarsomere yellow and 2nd to 5th tarsomeres gradually darkened. Abdomen: tergites black and shining, clothed with hairs; sternites III and IV deeply excavated posteriorly, with several setae; epandrium (Figs 10, 11) elongate; surstylus (Fig. 10) fused to epandrium and apically rounded, and without setulae but clothed with minute spines on the inside (Fig. 11); aedeagus (Fig. 10) basically long and slender, and with a sclerotized apical structure; cercus (Fig. 10) short and dilated apically, with a strong seta that is 2.5 times as long as the cercus; hypandrium (Fig. 10) elongate and with pair of sclerotized strips medially connected to long aedeagal apodeme; epiphallus (Fig. 10) sclerotized; paramere membranous.

figure

Figure 6–11. Strongylophthalmyia papuana sp. nov. 6 Male head, left lateral view; 7 male palpus, left lateral view; 8 right wing, dorsal view; 9 male right hind femur, posterior view; 10 male genitalia, left lateral view; 11 male genitalia, posterior view. Scale bars: photograph, 1.0 mm; illustrations, 0.1 mm.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Female. Abdominal segments I–V somewhat flat; segment V constricted posteriorly; segment VII cylindrical, marginally with long posterior setulae; ovipositor very slender and bare. Other characteristics same as those of male.

Length. ♂, ♀, body, ca. 5.0 mm; wing, about 3.5 mm.

Holotype (BPBM17,629). ♂, Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), Papua New Guinea, 26.v.1965, JS. Paratypes. 1♂, Wau (1200 m a.s.l.), 11.x.1965, JS; 1♂, same locality, 22.x.1965, JS; 1♀, same locality, 27.x.1965, JS; 1♀, same locality, 14.xi.1965, P Shanaham; 1♀, same locality, 14.iii.1966, JL Gressitt; 1♀, same locality, Morobe Dist., 4.iii.1965, JS; 1♀, same locality, 27.I.1967, R Straatman; 1♀, same locality, Hospital Ck, 9–13.iv.1965, JS; 1♂, 10 km W. Buloso (780 m a.s.l.), Morobe Dist., 5–25.viii.1967, R Straatman; 1♂, Wau (1180 m a.s.l.), 31.x.1964, JS; 1♀, NE Wau (1230 m a.s.l.), 3.xii.1964, JS (all BPBM).

Distribution. Papua New Guinea.

Etymology. This species is named after the locality where the type specimens were collected.

Remarks. This species is similar to S. puncticollis Frey in having two basal processes on the hind femur, but is easily distinguishable from it in having the following characteristics: proepisternum densely clothed with yellow hairs; femora and tibiae dark brown; basalmost of two posterobasal femoral processes rounded; seta on cercus about 2.5 times as long as cercus (in S. puncticollis propleuron sparsely clothed with black hair-like setulae; femora and tibiae yellow, only basal and apical one-third of hind tibiae dark brown; basalmost of posterobasal femoral processes elongate, tongue-shaped; setae on cercus about 4 times as long as cercus).

Strongylophthalmyia puncticollis Frey, 1928

Strongylophthalmyia puncticollis Frey, 1928: 102.

Strongylophthalmyia luzonensis Malloch, 1929: 548.

Strongylophthalmyia puncticollis: Steyskal, 1971: 142.

According to the key in Steyskal (1971), the hind tibiae of S. puncticollis are blackish, with only the median third yellowish. The hind tibiae of the male specimen examined in the present study are almost dark brown, but other characteristics including genitalia agree with S. puncticollis.

Specimen examined. 1♂, Kovelo near Kokoda, Papua New Guinea, 6.vi.1964, DK McAlpine (AMS).

Distribution. Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao) (Steyskal 1977) and Papua New Guinea (new record).

Strongylophthalmyia rubella sp. nov

Male. Head (Fig. 12): eye brown; frons wholly black and shining; face yellow; parafacialia yellow, partially with silvery dust; gena about 1/10 height of eye and yellow with silvery dust; postgena broad and yellow with silvery dust anteriorly; occiput black and shining; postpedicel (Fig. 12) yellow, and dorsally with a long and slender process that is densely clothed with brown hairs and 2.2–2.5 times as long as length of postpedicel; arista (Fig. 12) short, styliform and bare; palpus (Fig. 13) clavate and yellow, sparsely clothed with setulae anteroventrally; proboscis brown, black distally; 4 fr (hair-like and short); 3 or, 1 oc, 1vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt. Thorax: mesonotum dark brown to black, sparsely clothed with short setulae; postpronotum yellow to light brown; all pleura and anterior spiracle reddish yellow; proepisternum clothed with yellow hairs; anterior and posterior parts of anepisternum and anepimeron sparsely with yellow hairs; katepisternum bare; 1 anepst, 2 npl, 1 dc, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1 ap sc. Wing (Fig. 14): hyaline, without any dark spot or band; vein R2+3 nearly straight and its end not beyond basal three-fourths of whole length of costa; crossvein r-m beyond basal one-third of discal cell; R4+5 and M1+2 slightly convergent apically; upper squama light brown, with black hairs marginally; halter brown, darkened basally; Legs: fore and mid coxae yellow; hind coxa black; fore femur yellow; mid and hind femora yellow, darkened apically; tibiae light brown in basal half and yellow in apical half; tarsi yellow. Abdomen: tergites black and shining, clothed with setulae; sternites II–IV squarish without setulae; sternite V round with several setulae posteriorly; epandrium (Figs 15, 16) elongate; surstylus (Figs 15, 16) fused to epandrium, apically rounded, and clothed with short setulae; cercus (Fig. 15) dorsally dilated, with a setae slightly shorter than length of cercus; aedeagus (Fig. 15) long and slender, with patch of hairs on distal third and apically with a sclerotized knob; hypandrium (Fig. 15) elongate and with pair of sclerotized strips medially connected to long aedeagal apodeme; epiphallus (Fig. 13) sclerotized; paramere membranous.

figure

Figure 12–17. Strongylophthalmyia rubella sp. nov. 12 Male head, left lateral view; 13 male palpus, left lateral view; 14 right wing, dorsal view; 15 male genitalia, left lateral view; 16 male genitalia, posterior view; 17 female postpedicel, left lateral view; Scale bars: photograph, 1.0 mm; illustrations, 0.1 mm.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Female. Postpedicel (Fig. 17) without long dorsal process; arista (Fig. 17) slender and bare, and about 2.5 times as long as length of postpedicel; 5th and 6th abdominal segments not constricted between them; ovipositor very slender and elongate. Other characteristics same as those of male.

Length. ♂, ♀: body, 3.8–4.4 mm; wing, 2.9–3.6 mm.

Holotype (BPBM17,632). ♂, Wau (1280 m a.s.l.), Papua New Guinea, 14.vi.1965, JS. Paratypes. 2♂, 1♀, Wau (1200 m a.s.l.), 15–16.xii.1965, JS; 1♂, same locality, 22.xii.1965, JS; 2♂, same locality, 29–31.I.1967, R Straatman; 1♀, same locality, 28.xii.1965, JS; 5♂, Wau (1200–1250 m a.s.l.), Morobe Dist., 30.v–29.vii.1961, JS; 3♂, Wau (1230 m a.s.l.), Hospital Ck., 26.vi.1965, JS; 2♂, Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), iv.1965, JL Gressitt; 2♂, 2♀, same locality, 24–29.ix.1965, JS; 1♂, same locality, 12.iii.1963, JS; 1♂, same locality, Morobe Dist., 11.ii.1965, JS (all BPBM).

Distribution. Papua New Guinea.

Etymology. This species is named for its reddish thoracic pleura.

Remarks. This species belongs to the punctata group of Shatalkin (1996) in having a peculiar dorsal process on the postpedicel in the male. This new species is similar to S. stylocera Shatalkin, but differs from it in having reddish pleura and a brownish halter.

Our examination revealed that a male specimen determined as S. immaculata Hennig and listed by Evenhuis (1989) is S. rubella sp. nov. Therefore, S. immaculata was excluded from the present key.

Strongylophthalmyia sedlaceki sp. nov

Male. Head (Fig. 18): eye dark brown; frons wholly black and shining; face yellow; parafacialia yellow with silvery dust; gena about 1/8 height of eye and yellow with silvery dust; postgena broad and anteriorly light brown with silvery dust and posteriorly dark brown; occiput black and shining; pedicel brown; postpedicel (Fig. 18) yellow, with a long and slender dorsal process that is densely clothed with brown hairs and 2.5–3.0 times as long as length of postpedicel; arista (Fig. 18) short, styliform and bare; palpus (Fig. 19) clavate and brown, sparsely clothed with setulae anteroventrally; proboscis black basally and brown apically; 4 fr (hair-like and short); 3 or, 1 oc, 1 vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt. Thorax: mesonotum black and shining, sparsely clothed with short hair-like setulae; postpronotum and all pleura black and shining; proepisternum clothed with long and yellow hairs; anterior and posterior parts of anepisternum and anepimeron sparsely with yellow hair-like setulae; katepisternum bare; 1 anepst, 2npl, 1 dc, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1 ap sc. Wing (Fig. 20): hyaline; vein R2+3 nearly straight and its end not beyond basal three-fourths of whole length of costa; crossvein r-m beyond basal one-third of discal cell; veins R4+5 and M1+2 slightly convergent in apical part; upper squama brown, with blackish hairs marginally; halter whitish yellow, darkened basally. Legs: fore coxa yellow; mid and hind coxae yellow to brown; all femora dark brown; mid femur slightly bent near middle; fore tibia yellow; mid and hind tibiae dark brown, with apical yellow rings; tarsi yellow, darkened apically. Abdomen: tergites black and shining, clothed with setulae; sternites II-VI weakly pigmented and squarish; epandrium (Figs 21, 22) elongate; surstylus (Figs 21, 22) fused to epandrium, apically rounded and clothed with short setulae; cercus (Fig. 21) dilated dorso-apically, with a setae that is slightly shorter than length of cercus; aedeagus (Fig. 21) long and slender, with patch of hairs on distal third and a sclerotized knob apically; hypandrium (Fig. 21) elongate and with pair of sclerotized strips medially connected to long aedeagal apodeme; epiphallus (Fig. 21) sclerotized; paramere membranous.

figure

Figure 18–22. Strongylophthalmyia sedlaceki sp. nov. 18 Male head, left lateral view; 19 male palpus, left lateral view; 20 right wing, dorsal view; 21 male genitalia, left lateral view; 22 male genitalia, posterior view. Scale bars: photograph, 1.0 mm; illustrations, 0.1 mm.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Female. Postpedicel without long dorsal process; arista slender, bare and long as in S. rubella sp. nov.; abdominal segments I–VI somewhat flat; segments V and VI not constricted between them; ovipositor very slender and elongate. Other characteristics same as those of male.

Length. ♂, ♀: body, 3.4–4.1 mm; wing, 2.8–3.0 mm.

Holotype (BPBM17,630). ♂, Wau (1200 m a.s.l.), Papua New Guinea, 11.ii.1966, JS. Paratypes. 1♂, same locality as holotype, 30.vi.1961, JS; 3♂, Wau (1230 m a.s.l.), 19–22.vi.1965, JS; 2♂, Wau (1150–1250 m a.s.l.), Hospital Ck., 18.v.1965, JS; 2♂, Wau (1230 m a.s.l.), Hospital Ck., 26.vi.1965, JS; 1♂, Wau (1100–1200 m a.s.l.), vii.1968, NLH Krauss; 3♂, Wau (1050–1200 m a.s.l.), Morobe Dist., 7.vii–16.x.1961, JS; 1♂, Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), 3.ix.1965, JS; 1♂, same locality, 3.viii.1964, JS; 1♂, same locality, Morobe Dist., 13.x.1962, JS; 1♂, same locality, 8.ii.1965, JS; 1♀, NE Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), 20.iii.1965, JS.

Distribution. Papua New Guinea.

Etymology. This species is named after Dr J Sedlacek, who collected the type specimens.

Remarks. This new species is similar to S. stylocera Shatalkin and S. rubella sp. nov., but is easily distinguishable from the former in having dark brownish legs and from the latter in having blackish thoracic pleura.

Strongylophthalmyia shatalkini sp. nov

Male. Head (Fig. 23): eye dark brown; frons wholly black and shining; face yellow; parafacialia silvery dusted; gena narrow, about 1/20 height of eye and yellow with silvery dust; postgena black with silvery dust anteriorly; occiput black and shining; postpedicel (Fig. 23) yellow, tinged with brown marginally, and dorsally with long and slender process that is densely clothed with brown hairs and about 4 times as long as length of postpedicel; arista short, styliform, and bare; palpus (Fig. 24) clavate and yellow, clothed with setulae anteroventrally; proboscis dark brown to black; 4 fr (hair-like and short); 3 or, 1 oc, 1 vti, 1 vte, 1 poc, 1 pavt. Thorax: mesonotum black and shining, sparsely clothed with short hair-like setulae; all pleura and anterior spiracle black; proepisternum clothed with yellow hairs; anterior and posterior parts of anepisternum and anepimeron also clothed with long yellow hairs; katepisternum almost bare, ventrally with only several hairs; 1 anepst, 2 npl, 1 sa, 1 pa, 1 dc, 1 ap sc. Wing (Fig. 25): hyaline, with brown median transverse band and faint apical spot; vein R2+3 nearly straight and its end not beyond basal three-fourths of whole length of costa; crossvein r-m beyond basal one-third of discal cell; R4+5 and M1+2 almost parallel; upper squama black, with long black hairs marginally; halter whitish yellow, darkened basally. Legs: fore coxa yellow, mid and hind coxae brown to dark brown; all femora dark brown, mid femur slightly bent near middle; fore tibia yellow; mid and hind tibiae brown, with apical yellow rings; tarsal segments yellow, darkened apically. Abdomen: tergites black and shining, clothed with setulae; sternites II–V weakly pigmented and squarish; sternite V with several setulae; epandrium (Figs 26, 27) elongate; surstylus (Figs 26, 27) fused to epandrium, apically rounded and clothed with setulae; cercus (Fig. 26) dilated dorsally, with a setae shorter than length of cercus; aedeagus long and slender, with a sclerotized knob apically; hypandrium (Fig. 26) elongate and with pair of sclerotized strips medially connected to long aedeagal apodeme; epiphallus (Fig. 26) especially sclerotized in apical part; paramere membranous.

figure

Figure 23–27. Strongylophthalmyia shatalkini sp. nov. 23 Male head, left lateral view; 24 male palpus, left lateral view; 25 right wing, dorsal view; 26 male genitalia, left lateral view; 27 male genitalia, posterior view. Scale bars: photograph, 1.0 mm; illustrations, 0.1 mm.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Length. body, 2.5–3.1 mm; wing, about 2.5 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Holotype (BPBM17,631). Papua New Guinea: ♂, Wau (1200 m a.s.l.), 9.xi.1965, P Shanahan. Paratypes. 3♂, same locality as holotype, Morobe Dist., 15–21.i.1963, JS; 1♂, same locality, 11–14.ix.1961, JS; 9♂, Wau (1200–1250 m a.s.l.), 31.i–22.xii.1965, JS; 1♂, same locality, Hospital Ck. (1250 m a.s.l.), 22.v.1965, JS; 1♂, Wau (1250 m a.s.l.), 13.x.1962, JS; 1♂, same locality, 3.viii.1964, JS; 1♂, Indonesia (Papua): Ginnakan (50 m a.s.l.), Hollandia area, 13.vii.1957, DE Hardy (all BPBM).

Distribution. Papua New Guinea and Indonesia (Papua).

Etymology. This species is named after Dr AI Shatalkin, who has made valuable contributions to the study of the Strongylophthalmyiidae and has generously provided help to N.L.E. in his research on the family.

Remarks. This species is a member of the punctata group of Shatalkin (1996) in having the dorsal process on the postpedicel. This new species is distinguishable from other species of this group by the following combination of characters: dorsal process on postpedicel long, about 4 times as long as length of postpedicel; wing with brown median transverse band and faint apical spot; all femora and mid- and hind tibiae dark brown to black.

Faunistic remarks

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

The knowledge of the Strongylophthalmyiidae in Papua New Guinea is still incomplete, but it is now feasible to discuss an outline of its faunal composition. In total, eight species of Strongylophthalmyia are here recorded from Papua New Guinea; these can be divided into the following three groups according to their distribution.

  1. Oriental species: Strongylophthalmyia nigriventris, S. puncticollis
  2. Species endemic to Wallacea and New Guinea: Strongylophthalmyia fascipes
  3. Species endemic to New Guinea: Strongylophthalmyia gigantica sp. nov., S. papuana sp. nov., S. rubella sp. nov., S. sedlaceki sp. nov. and S. shatalkini sp. nov.

Although the distributional data for the species of group 1 are fragmentary, the group is probably of Oriental origin, and ranges from the Philippines to New Guinea including adjacent islands. McAlpine (1982) emphasized that many Papuan acalyptrate taxa have been limited by Lydekker's Line (modified Weber's Line). Iwasa (2001) showed the presence of some endemic species of Sepsidae in Wallacea limited by Wallace's Line and Lydekker's Line; however, neither Wallace's Line nor Weber's Line has much significance for the Drosophilidae (Okada 1981). Although the origin of S. fascipes of group 2 is unclear, it is probably of a Wallacean–Papuan lineage that crossed Lydekker's Line. The acalyptrate Diptera in New Guinea are very unequally known, but there is a very rich fauna and a large number of endemic genera and subgenera in the Drosophilidae, Platystomatidae, Tephritidae, Sphaeroceridae and Sepsidae from Papua New Guinea (Zuska 1970; Carson & Okada 1982; McAlpine 1982). Shatalkin (1993) established the new genus Nartshukia as endemic to Vietnam, but in Papua New Guinea this family has no endemic genera: species found there are represented only in Strongylophthalmyia. However, S. gigantica sp. nov., which has an extraordinary body size and deeply infuscated wings, is considered to be strictly endemic to Papua New Guinea, although known only from a single specimen.

Shatalkin (1996) recognized two distinct species groups (crinita and punctata) in Strongylophthalmyia based on characteristics of the postpedicel and the male genitalia. The punctata group is characterized by having the long dorsal process on the postpedicel just anterior to the base of the arista. Three species (S. rubella sp. nov., S. sedlaceki sp. nov. and S. shatalkini sp. nov.) belong to the punctata group and closely resemble the Oriental species, S. stylocera. Strongylophthalmyia papuana sp. nov. does not belong to either the crinita or punctata group, but it is very similar to the Oriental S. puncticollis in having posterobasal processes on the male hind femur.

From this information, it is suggested that the strongylophthalmyiid species in Papua New Guinea have speciated while maintaining distinct affiliations with species of the Oriental Region. Further research is necessary for a more robust understanding of the strongylophthalmyiid fauna in New Guinea and adjacent areas.

Evenhuis (1989) listed Strongylophthalmyia lutea de Meijere from Papua New Guinea. Our re-examination of a male specimen based on the determination revealed that it is not S. lutea as it lacks the characteristic median transverse band and apical spot in the wing found in S. lutea. However, its identification could not be accurately ascertained because it is a teneral specimen. Therefore, S. lutea was excluded from the following key.

Key to species of the genus Strongylophthalmyia of Papua New Guinea Key to species of the genus Strongylophthalmyia of Papua New Guinea

  • 1. 
    Large body size, about 7.5 mm in length; wing wholly infuscated, especially dark brown anteriorly   S. gigantica sp. nov.
  • – 
    Small to medium body size, 2.5–5.0 mm in length; wing wholly hyaline or partly with brown bands or spots  2
  • 2. 
    ♂, Postpedicel dorsally with long and slender process just anterior to the base of arista  3
  • – 
    ♂, Postpedicel without such process just anterior to the base of arista  5
  • 3. 
    ♂, Dorsal process on postpedicel long, about 4 times as long as length of postpedicel; wing with brown median transverse band and faint apical spot   S. shatalkini sp. nov.
  • – 
    ♂, Dorsal process on postpedicel 2.2–3.0 times as long as length of postpedicel; wing hyaline without brown transverse band and spot  4
  • 4. 
    Thoracic pleura reddish; femora and tibiae yellow   S. rubella sp. nov.
  • – 
    Thoracic pleura blackish; femora and tibiae dark brown  S. sedlaceki sp. nov.
  • 5. 
    Mesonotum reddish brown with a pair of dark stripes along entire length, converging anteriorly; wing hyaline  S. nigriventris Frey
  • – 
    Mesonotum black, without contrasting stripes; wing with brown band or spot  6
  • 6. 
    Wing with brown apical spot restricted to apex of submarginal cell and without median transverse band   S. fascipes (Walker)
  • – 
    Wing with brown apical spot stretched over submarginal cell and 1st posterior cell or with median transverse band  7
  • 7. 
    Wing medianly with weak brown transverse band; ♂, basalmost of posterobasal processes on hind femur rounded  S. papuana sp. nov.
  • – 
    Wing medianly with distinct brown transverse band and brown apical spot; ♂, basalmost of posterobasal processes of hind femur elongate, tongue-shaped  S. puncticollis Frey

World Checklist of Strongylophthalmyiidae Species

The list below is the current list of species and published distributions of all known species of Strongylophthalmyia and Nartshukia worldwide giving author, year and page of the original publication. For those species that were originally described in another genus, that genus is placed in parentheses following date and page combination. Junior synonyms are placed in italics below the senior synonym and indented. Distributions are listed with type locality first; additional localities are placed after the semicolon. Abbreviations used: PNG = Papua New Guinea; USA = United States of America.

Strongylophthalmyia:

angusticollis Frey, 1956: 132. Burma.

angustipennis Melander, 1920: 100. USA (Washington); Canada, widespread USA.

longula Johnson, 1921: 14 (Psila). USA (Massachusetts).

bifasciata Yang & Wang, 1992: 447. China (Zhejiang).

brunneipennis de Meijere, 1914: 241 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java); Philippines, Thailand.

caliginosa Iwasa, 1992: 663. Japan.

coarctata Hendel, 1913: 87. Taiwan.

crinita Hennig, 1940: 311. Taiwan; Burma, Vietnam, Japan.

curvinervis Frey, 1956: 132. Burma.

dorsocentralis Papp in Papp et al., 2006: 167. Thailand.

elegantissima Frey, 1956: 131. Burma; Vietnam.

fasciolata de Meijere, 1919: 36. Indonesia (Sumatra).

fascipennis Frey, 1928: 102. Philippines; Burma.

fascipes Walker, 1860: 163 (Sepsis). Indonesia (Sulawesi); Indonesia (Papua), PNG.

freidbergi Shatalkin, 1996: 154. Thailand.

freyi Shatalkin, 1996: 152. Burma

gibbifera Shatalkin, 1993: 128. Vietnam; Thailand.

gigantica Iwasa & Evenhuis, this study. PNG.

humeralis Frey, 1956: 132 (as angusticollis “forma”). Burma.

immaculata Hennig, 1940: 309. Taiwan.

indica Shatalkin, 1996: 152. India (Meghalaya).

japonica Iwasa, 1992: 661. Japan; Russia (Kuril Is).

lutea de Meijere, 1914: 241 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java); Thailand.

macrocera Papp in Papp et al., 2006: 168. Thailand.

maculipennis Hendel, 1913: 88. Taiwan.

metatarsata de Meijere, 1919: 35. Indonesia (Sumatra); Thailand.

microstyla Shatalkin, 1996: 155. Philippines

nigricoxa de Meijere, 1914: 241 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java); Thailand.

nigriventris Frey, 1928: 101 (as lutea var.). Philippines; Malaysia (Sarawak), PNG.

pallipes de Meijere, 1914: 242 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java); Philippines.

palpalis Papp in Papp et al., 2006: 168. Thailand.

papuana Iwasa & Evenhuis, this study. PNG.

paula Shatalkin, 1993: 127. Russia (Kuril Is.)

pectinigera Shatalkin, 1996: 152. Thailand.

pengellyi Barber, 2006: 82. Canada (Ontario); USA.

pictipes Frey, 1935: 98. Finland; Russia (Amur, Moscow, Buryatia), Norway.

polita de Meijere, 1914: 242 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java); Indonesia (Sumatra), Thailand.

punctata Hennig, 1940: 312. Taiwan; Thailand.

puncticollis Frey, 1928: 102. Philippines; PNG.

luzonensis Malloch, 1929: 548. Philippines.

punctum Frey, 1956: 132. Burma.

raricornis Shatalkin, 1981: 792. Russia (Khaborovsk).

rubella Iwasa & Evenhuis, this study. PNG.

sedlaceki Iwasa & Evenhuis, this study. PNG.

shatalkini Iwasa & Evenhuis, this study. PNG; Indonesia (Papua).

spinipalpa Shatalkin, 1996: 154. India (Meghalaya).

spinosa Frey, 1956: 131. Burma; Thailand.

splendida Yang & Wang, 1998: 459. China (Tibet).

stackelbergi Krivosheina, 1981: 183. Russia (Kuril Is).

stylocera Shatalkin, 1996: 156. Philippines.

thaii Papp in Papp et al., 2006: 171. Thailand.

trifasciata Hennig, 1940: 310. Taiwan.

tripunctata de Meijere, 1914: 241 (Labropsila). Indonesia (Java).

ustulata Zetterstedt, 1847: 2427 (Chyliza). Sweden; Europe (Andorra, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, UK), Russia (Primorye), North Korea, Japan.

filata Zetterstedt, 1847: 2428 (Chyliza). Sweden.

verrucifera Shatalkin, 1996: 154. Vietnam.

yaoshana Yang & Wang, 1998: 459. China (Guangxi).

Nartshukia:

musiva Shatalkin, 1993: 129. Vietnam.

Taxa previously removed from Strongylophthalmyia (by Barraclough 2000):

aethiopica Verbeke, 1968:70 (Strongylophthalmyia) – to Heteromeringia (Clusiidae)

distoma Verbeke, 1963: 173 (Strongylophthalmyia) – to Tetrameringia (Clusiidae).

Acknowledgments

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References

Our thanks are due to DJ Bickel and D Britton (AMS) and the staff of the Bishop Museum entomological collections (BPBM) for allowing access to specimens in their care.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Taxonomy
  6. Faunistic remarks
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. References
  • Barber KN (2006) Strongylophthalmyia pengellyi n. sp., a second species of Nearctic Strongylophthalmyiidae (Diptera). Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 137, 81109.
  • Barraclough DA (2000) The identity of Strongylophthalmyia Heller species (Diptera: Schizophora: Strongylophthalmyiidae) described from the Afrotropical Region, and their transfer to the family Clusiidae. Annals of the Natal Museum 41, 103106.
  • Carson HL, Okada T (1982) 10. Drosophilidae of New Guinea. In: Gressitt JL (ed.) Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, Monographiae Biologicae 42, pp 675687. Dr. W Junk Publishers, The Hague.
  • d'Assis-Fonseca ECM (1968) Diptera Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata. Section (b) Muscidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 10 (4(b)), 1119.
  • Evenhuis NL (1989) 58. Family Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: Evenhuis NL (ed.) Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions, Bishop Museum Special Publication 86, p 472. Bishop Museum Press and EJ Brill, Honolulu.
  • Frey R (1928) Philippinische Dipteren. VI. Fam. Sciomyzidae, Psilidae, Megamerinidae, Sepsidae, Piophilidae, Clusiidae. Notulae Entomologicae 8, 100108.
  • Frey R (1935) Neue Diptera brachycera aus Finnland und angrenzenden Ländern. III. Notulae Entomologicae 15, 97101.
  • Frey R (1956) Studien über ostasiatische Dipteren. V. Psilidae, Megamerinidae. Notulae Entomologicae 35 [1955], 122137.
  • Hendel F (1913) H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Acalyptrate Musciden (Dipt.). II. Supplementa Entomologica 2, 77112.
  • Hennig W (1940) Aussereuropäische Psiliden und Platystomiden im Deutschen Entomologischen Institut. (Diptera). Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem 7, 304318.
  • Hennig W (1941) 41. Psilidae. In: Lindner E (ed.) Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region, 5, pp 138. E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.
  • Iwasa M (1992) The genus Strongylophthalmyia Heller (Diptera, Strongylophthalmyiidae) from Japan, with descriptions of two new species. Japanese Journal of Entomology 60, 660666.
  • Iwasa M (1995) Occurrence of Strongylophthalmyia ustulata Zetterstedt (Diptera, Strongylophthalmyiidae) from Japan and North Korea. Japanese Journal of Entomology 63, 547548.
  • Iwasa M (1998) Family Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: Papp L , Darvas B (eds) Contributions to A Manual of Palaearctic Diptera, 3, pp 173175. Science Herald, Budapest.
  • Iwasa M (2001) Taxonomic and faunistic notes on the Sepsidae (Diptera) in Seram, Indonesia. Entomological Science 4, 533538.
  • Johnson CW (1921) New species of Diptera. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 5, 1117.
  • Krivosheina NP (1981) New Palaearctic species of the genus Strongylophthalmyia Hell. (Diptera, Strongylophthalmyiidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 60, 183186.
  • Krivosheina NP (1984) Family Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: Soós Á , Papp L (eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, 9, pp 2728. Akadémiai Kaidó, Budapest.
  • Malloch JR (1929) Exotic Muscaridae (Diptera). XXV. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 3, 545564.
  • Marshall SA (2012) Flies. The Natural History and Diversity of Diptera. Firefly Books, 616 pp. Buffalo, New York.
  • McAlpine DK (1982) 9. The calyptrate Diptera with special reference to the Platystomatidae. In: Gressitt JL (ed.) Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, Monographiae Biologicae 42, pp 659673. Dr. W Junk Publishers, The Hague.
  • McAlpine JF (1981) Morphology and terminology – adults. In: McAlpine JF , Peterson BV , Shewell GE , Tesky HJ , Vockeroth JR , Wood DM (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 1, pp 963. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27, Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Hull.
  • de Meijere JCH (1914) Studien über südasiatische Dipteren. IX. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 57, 137275.
  • de Meijere JCH (1919) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der sumatränischen Dipteren. Beiträge tot de Dierkunde 21, 1340.
  • Melander AL (1920) Synopsis of the dipterous family Psilidae. Psyche 27, 91101.
  • Okada T (1981) Oriental species, including New Guinea. In: Ashburner M , Carson HL , Thompson Jr, JN (eds) The Genetics and Biology of Drosophila, 3, pp 261289. Academic Press Inc., London.
  • Papp L, Merz B, Földvári M (2006) Diptera of Thailand. A summary of the families and genera with references to the species representations. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 52, 97269.
  • Shatalkin AI (1981) [Claraeola crassula sp. n. (Pipunculidae) and Strongylophthalmyia raricornis sp. n. (Strongylophthalmyiidae), new peculiar Diptera from the USSR]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 60, 791793. (In Russian.)
  • Shatalkin AI (1993) [On the taxonomy of the flies of the family Strongylophthalmyiidae (Diptera)]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 72, 124131. (In Russian).
  • Shatalkin AI (1996) New and little known species of flies of Lauxaniidae and Strongylophthalmyiidae (Diptera). Russian Entomological Journal 4, 145157.
  • Steyskal GC (1971) Notes on the genus Strongylophthalmyia Heller, with a revised key to the species (Diptera: Strongylophthalmyiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64, 141144.
  • Steyskal GC (1977) Family Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: Delfinado MD , Hardy DE (eds) A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, 3, pp 2123. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
  • Stuckenberg BR (1999) Antennal evolution in the Brachycera (Diptera), with a reassessment of terminology relating to the flagellum. Studia Dipterologica 6, 3348.
  • Verbeke J (1963) Note sur quelques Psilidae et Micropezidae éthiopiens et malgaches (Diptera, Acalyptera). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 67, 163175.
  • Verbeke J (1968) Psilidae (Diptera Acalyptera). Exploration du Parc National de la Garamba Misson H. de Saeger 53, 6577.
  • Walker F (1860) Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected at Makessar in Celebes, by Mr. AR Wallace, with descriptions of new species [concl.]. Journal and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 4, 145172. [First part published 1859, Journal and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 4, 90–144.]
    Direct Link:
  • Yang C, Wang X (1992) [A preliminary study of the Psilidae and Strongylophthalmyiidae of Mt. Mogan with two new species (Diptera: Acalyptratae)]. Journal of the Zhejiang Forestry College 9, 446449. (In Chinese.)
  • Yang C, Wang X (1998) Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: Xue W , Chao C (eds) Flies of China 1[1996], pp 457463. Liaoning Science and Technology Press, Shenyang. (In Chinese with English summary.)
  • Zetterstedt JW (1847) Diptera Scandinavia disposita et descripta. Lundae 6, 21632580.
  • Zuska J (1970) A revision of the genus Parapalaeosepsis (Diptera, Sepsidae). Acta Entomologicae Bohemoslovaca 67, 5061.