Ambrosia beetles (many Scolytinae and all Platypodinae) are one of the most important insect pests for forestry worldwide, but little is known about the community structure of ambrosia beetles in terms of their vertical variations and resource utilization. We clarified the community structure and seasonal population trends of ambrosia beetles on 11 living and three newly dead Fagus crenata Blume trees using individual tube traps placed up to 10 m high from May to November in 2007 and 2008. We captured seven scolytine species (Ambrosiodmus lewisi (Blandford), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Trypodendron proximum (Niisima), Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, Xylosandrus brevis (Eichhoff) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford)) and three platypodine species (Crossotarsus niponicus Blandford, Platypus hamatus Blandford and Platypus severini Blandford). The ambrosia beetles were suggested to breed at species-specific height ranges, with the equal host resource use per individual among the species. Of the three major species, C. niponicus, P. hamatus and P. severini, two (C. niponicus and P. hamatus) had male-biased sex ratios, which is considered a reproductive strategy to increase maternal fitness. Morphological characteristics of the mandibles may play an important role in the difference of sex roles on reproduction in the three major species.