• daily activity;
  • diel rhythm;
  • male-male competition;
  • reproductive behavior


In many insects, mating is affected by the day–night cycle, i.e., diurnal rhythm. Although there are many reports that mating and other reproductive behaviors are controlled by daily rhythms in various taxonomic insect species, little attention has been paid to the effect of daily rhythms on male fighting behavior. Here, we investigate whether the frequency and escalation of male–male aggressive interaction exhibit diurnal rhythms under a long-day condition in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris. Despite the fact that male aggressive behaviors were most often observed in the middle of the later half of light periods, no interaction was found between escalation of fighting and the time period. The results, at least, suggest that male aggressive behaviors are influenced by diurnal rhythms like other reproductive behaviors in R. pedestris.