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First record of the drumming signals of stoneflies Capnopsis Morton, 1896 and Protonemura Kempny, 1898 genera (Plecoptera, Capniidae and Nemouridae)

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Abstract

The male drumming signal of Capnopsis schilleri is studied for the first time. It is a monophasic call composed of 4–8 beats with a decreasing frequency. In the present paper, the drumming signals of some Protonemura species are also recorded and described for the first time both in males (Protonemura alcazaba, Protonemura meyeri and Protonemura navacerrada) and females (P. meyeri, P. navacerrada and Protonemura pyrenaica). The male call is very homogeneous in all the studied species and they consist of a repetition of 2–11 sequences of 6–31 beats, with an inter-beat interval ranging from 0.034 to 0.088 s. The females have monophasic long signals consisting of a repetition of 5 to 109 beats with an inter-beat interval of 0.061 to 0.159 s. It is extraordinary that females produced signals when males were absent, and so the female signal can be also considered as a call and not only an answer, as usually pointed out in stoneflies.

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