• codiversification;
  • host–plant association;
  • node-dating analysis


Selandriinae, a subfamily of family Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), comprises multiple tribes, each of which has a relationship with specific plant group. The host specificity of the Selandriinae taxa provides a good model to examine the coevolution between hosts and insects. However, few phylogenetic studies for the Selandriinae obscure the evolutionary scenario with their host-plants. The present study is a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 19 selandriine species based on mitochondrial genes (12S: 461 sites, 16S: 262sites and COI: 495 sites) and nuclear genes (18S: 773 sites and 28S: 495 sites). The results suggested three of six studied tribes are genetically isolated. Moreover, estimation of the time of molecular divergence showed that the Selandriinae clearly diverged at the same time as their host-plants (monocots and ferns). These results suggested that the Selandriinae species might have codiversified with their hosts.