The adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest over the past years. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of experimental self-adhesive resin cement (EXP) when used alone and in combination with a self-etch adhesive. Fiber posts were placed in endodontically treated teeth and divided into four groups (n = 6) according the luting material, as follows: group 1 (EXP alone); group 2 (EXP used with self-etch adhesive); group 3 (marketed dual-cured cement used with self-etch adhesive); and group 4 (marketed self-adhesive cement). The push-out test was used to assess the retentive strength of fiber posts (expressed in MPa), and specimens were analyzed under a stereomicroscope to determine failure mode. The adhesive interface between the cement and root canal dentin for each group was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The post retentive potential of group 1 (EXP) (7.48 ± 4.35 MPa) was comparable with that of marketed cements from group 4 (6.79 ± 3.68 MPa) and group 3 (8.77 ± 4.58 MPa). When EXP was used in combination with self-etch adhesive (group 2), significantly higher push-out bond-strength values were measured (15.87 ± 4.68 MPa) compared with the other groups.