Figure S1. (A) Channel configuration. (B) Ictalhaemodynamic variations (HbT –black, HbO –red, HbR–blue) over the epileptogenic zone (closed circles) and thecontralateral homologous region (open circles). The black lineindicates time of EEG evidence of seizure activity. (C) Topographicuncorrected T-stats viewed at different time points (blacktriangles) during the course of the seizure.

Figure S2. Second seizure identified during EEG-fNIRS recording of Patient 4.

Figure S3. This 21-year-old male (Patient 5), with a focus in the posterior portion of the right inferior/middle frontal gyri, experienced a gelastic seizure.

Figure S4. This 21-year-old male (Patient 6) had a left medial frontal focus extending to the anterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus.

Figure S5. Second seizure recorded for Patient 6.

Figure S6. Second seizure recorded for Patient 7.

Figure S7. Second seizure recorded for Patient 8.

Figure S8. As in Patient 4, this 35-year-old male (Patient 9) was found to have an electrical seizure upon closer inspection of a certain EEG timeframe guided by the occurrence of fNIRS signal deflectance.

Figure S9. Second seizure recorded for Patient 9.

Table S1. Results of other functional tests performed in the presurgical evaluation: single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and neuropsychological evaluation.

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