SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adab N, Kini U, Vinten J, Ayres J, Baker G, Clayton-Smith J, Coyle H, Fryer A, Gorry J, Gregg J, Mawer G, Nicolaides P, Pickering L, Tunnicliffe L, Chadwick DW. (2004) The longer term outcome of children born to mothers with epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:15751583.
  • Anderson GD. (2005) Pregnancy-induced changes in pharmacokinetics: a mechanistic-based approach. Clin Pharmacokinet 44:9891008.
  • Bardy A, Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V. (1982) Apparent plasma clearances of phenytoin, phenobarbitone, primidone, and carbamazepine during pregnancy: result of the prospective Helsinki study. In Janz D, Dam M, Bossi L, Helge H, Richens A, Schmidt D (Eds) Epilepsy, pregnancy, and the child. Raven Press, New York, pp. 141145.
  • Bardy AH, Hiilesmaa VK, Teramo KA. (1987) Serum phenytoin during pregnancy, labor and puerperium. Acta Neurol Scand 75:374375.
  • Battino D, Avanzini G, Bossi L, Canger R, Como ML, Croci D, Spina S. (1982) Monitoring of antiepileptic drugs plasma levels during pregnancy and puerperium. In Janz D, Dam M, Bossi L, Helge H, Richens A, Schmidt D (Eds) Epilepsy, pregnancy and the child. Raven Press, New York, pp. 147154.
  • Battino D, Binelli S, Bossi L, Canger R, Como ML, Croci D, Cusi C, De Giambattista M, Pardi GGA. (1984a) Monitoring of antiepileptic drugs and hormones in pregnant epileptic women. In Porter RJ, Mattson RH, Ward AA, Dam M (Eds) Advances in epileptology: the XVth Epilepsy International Symposium. Raven Press, New York, pp. 227232.
  • Battino D, Binelli S, Bossi L, Como ML, Croci D, Cusi C, Avanzini G. (1984b) Changes in primidone/phenobarbitone ratio during pregnancy and the puerperium. Clin Pharmacokinet 9:252260.
  • Battino D, Binelli S, Bossi L, Canger R, Croci D, Cusi C, De Giambattista M, Avanzini G. (1985) Plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide during pregnancy and after delivery. Clin Pharmacokinet 10:279284.
  • Bernus I, Hooper WD, Dickinson RG, Eadie MJ. (1995) Metabolism of carbamazepine and co-administered anticonvulsants during pregnancy. Epilepsy Res 21:6575.
  • Bialer M, Johannessen SI, Levy RH, Perucca E, Tomson T, White HS. (2009) Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: a summary of the Ninth Eilat Conference (EILAT IX). Epilepsy Res 83:143.
  • Cantwell R, Clutton-Brock T, Cooper G, Dawson A, Drife J, Garrod D, Harper A, Hulbert D, Lucas S, McClure J, Millward-Sadler H, Neilson J, Nelson-Piercy C, Norman J, O'Herlihy C, Oates M, Shakespeare J, de Swiet M, Williamson C, Beale V, Knight M, Lennox C, Miller A, Parmar D, Rogers J, Springett A. (2011) Saving Mothers' Lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006–2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. BJOG 118(Suppl. 1):1203.
  • Christensen J, Sabers A, Sidenius P. (2006) Oxcarbazepine concentrations during pregnancy: a retrospective study in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 67:14971499.
  • Dansky L, Andermann E, Shervin A, Andermann F. (1982) Plasma levels of pheytoin during pregnancy ant the puerperium. In Janz D, Dam M, Bossi L, Helge H, Richens A, Schmidt D (Eds) Epilepsy, pregnancy, and the child. Raven Press, New York, pp. 155162.
  • de Haan GJ, Edelbroek P, Segers J, Engelsman M, Lindhout D, Devile-Notschaele M, Augustijn P. (2004) Gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine pharmacokinetics: a monotherapy study. Neurology 63:571573.
  • Fitton A, Goa KL. (1995) Lamotrigine. An update of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in epilepsy. Drugs 50:691713.
  • Fotopoulou C, Kretz R, Bauer S, Schefold JC, Schmitz B, Dudenhausen JW, Henrich W. (2009) Prospectively assessed changes in lamotrigine-concentration in women with epilepsy during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period. Epilepsy Res 85:6064.
  • Franco V, Mazzucchelli I, Gatti G, Specchio LM, La Neve A, Papantonio A, Ozkaynakci AE, Perucca E. (2008) Changes in lamotrigine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and the puerperium. Ther Drug Monit 30:544547.
  • Gidal BE, Radulovic LL, Kruger S, Rutecki P, Pitterle M, Bockbrader HN. (2000) Inter- and intra-subject variability in gabapentin absorption and absolute bioavailability. Epilepsy Res 40:123127.
  • Harden CL, Meador KJ, Pennell PB, Hauser WA, Gronseth GS, French JA, Wiebe S, Thurman D, Koppel BS, Kaplan PW, Robinson JN, Hopp J, Ting TY, Gidal B, Hovinga CA, Wilner AN, Vazquez B, Holmes L, Krumholz A, Finnell R, Hirtz D, Le Guen C. (2009a) Practice Parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy–focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): Teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 50:12371246.
  • Harden CL, Pennell PB, Koppel BS, Hovinga CA, Gidal B, Meador KJ, Hopp J, Ting TY, Hauser WA, Thurman D, Kaplan PW, Robinson JN, French JA, Wiebe S, Wilner AN, Vazquez B, Holmes L, Krumholz A, Finnell R, Shafer PO, Le Guen C. (2009b) Practice Parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy–focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): vitamin K, folic acid, blood levels, and breastfeeding. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 3:142149.
  • Hernandez-Diaz S, Smith CR, Shen A, Mittendorf R, Hauser WA, Yerby M, Holmes LB. (2012) Comparative safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. Neurology 78:16921699.
  • Hussein Z, Posner J. (1997) Population pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine monotherapy in patients with epilepsy: retrospective analysis of routine monitoring data. Br J Clin Pharmacol 43:457465.
    Direct Link:
  • Johannessen SI, Landmark CJ. (2010) Antiepileptic drug interactions - principles and clinical implications. Curr Neuropharmacol 8:254267.
  • Johannessen SI, Tomson T. (2006) Pharmacokinetic variability of newer antiepileptic drugs: when is monitoring needed? Clin Pharmacokinet 45:10611075.
  • Johannessen SI, Helde G, Brodtkorb E. (2005) Levetiracetam concentrations in serum and in breast milk at birth and during lactation. Epilepsia 46:775777.
  • Johannessen Landmark C, Patsalos PN. (2010) Drug interactions involving the new second and third generation antiepileptic drugs. Expert Rev Neurother 10:119140.
  • Johannessen Landmark C, Patsalos PN. (2012) Methodologies used to identify and characterize interactions among antiepileptic drugs. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 5:281292.
  • Johannessen Landmark C, Johannessen SI, Tomson T. (2012) Host factors affecting antiepileptic drug delivery-pharmacokinetic variability. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:896910.
  • Kawada K, Itoh S, Kusaka T, Isobe K, Ishii M. (2002) Pharmacokinetics of zonisamide in perinatal period. Brain Dev 24:9597.
  • Lander CM, Eadie MJ. (1991) Plasma antiepileptic drug concentrations during pregnancy. Epilepsia 32:257266.
  • Lander CM, Livingstone I, Tyrer JH, Eadie MJ. (1981) The clearance of anticonvulsant drugs in pregnancy. Clin Exp Neurol 17:7178.
  • Langtry HD, Gillis JC, Davis R. (1997) Topiramate. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy in the management of epilepsy. Drugs 54:752773.
  • Mawhinney E, Campbell J, Craig J, Russell A, Smithson W, Parsons L, Robertson I, Irwin B, Morrison P, Liggan B, Delanty N, Hunt S, Morrow J. (2012) Valproate and the risk for congenital malformations: is formulation and dosage regime important? Seizure 21:215218.
  • May TW, Korn-Merker E, Rambeck B. (2003) Clinical pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine. Clin Pharmacokinet 42:10231042.
  • Mazzucchelli I, Onat FY, Ozkara C, Atakli D, Specchio LM, Neve AL, Gatti G, Perucca E. (2006) Changes in the disposition of oxcarbazepine and its metabolites during pregnancy and the puerperium. Epilepsia 47:504509.
  • Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, Clayton-Smith J, Combs-Cantrell DT, Cohen M, Kalayjian LA, Kanner A, Liporace JD, Pennell PB, Privitera M, Loring DW. (2009a) Cognitive function at 3 years of age after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. N Engl J Med 360:15971605.
  • Meador KJ, Penovich P, Baker GA, Pennell PB, Bromfield E, Pack A, Liporace JD, Sam M, Kalayjian LA, Thurman DJ, Moore E, Loring DW. (2009b) Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age. Epilepsy Behav 16:609616.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. (2012) The epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. NICE Clinical guideline 137. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13635/57779/57779.pdf.
  • Öhman I, Vitols S, Tomson T. (2000) Lamotrigine in pregnancy: pharmacokinetics during delivery, in the neonate, and during lactation. Epilepsia 41:709713.
  • Öhman I, Vitols S, Luef G, Soderfeldt B, Tomson T. (2002) Topiramate kinetics during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate: preliminary observations. Epilepsia 43:11571160.
  • Öhman I, Vitols S, Tomson T. (2005) Pharmacokinetics of gabapentin during delivery, in the neonatal period, and lactation: does a fetal accumulation occur during pregnancy? Epilepsia 46:16211624.
  • Öhman I, Beck O, Vitols S, Tomson T. (2008a) Plasma concentrations of lamotrigine and its 2-N-glucuronide metabolite during pregnancy in women with epilepsy. Epilepsia 49:10751080.
  • Öhman I, Luef G, Tomson T. (2008b) Effects of pregnancy and contraception on lamotrigine disposition: new insights through analysis of lamotrigine metabolites. Seizure 17:199202.
  • Öhman I, Sabers A, de Flon P, Luef G, Tomson T. (2009) Pharmacokinetics of topiramate during pregnancy. Epilepsy Res 87:124129.
  • Oles KS, Bell WL. (2008) Zonisamide concentrations during pregnancy. Ann Pharmacother 42:11391141.
  • Omtzigt JG, Nau H, Los FJ, Pijpers L, Lindhout D. (1992) The disposition of valproate and its metabolites in the late first trimester and early second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum, urine, and amniotic fluid: effect of dose, co-medication, and the presence of spina bifida. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 43:381388.
  • Patsalos PN. (2000) Pharmacokinetic profile of levetiracetam: toward ideal characteristics. Pharmacol Ther 85:7785.
  • Patsalos PN, Berry DJ, Bourgeois BF, Cloyd JC, Glauser TA, Johannessen SI, Leppik IE, Tomson T, Perucca E. (2008) Antiepileptic drugs–best practice guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring: a position paper by the subcommission on therapeutic drug monitoring, ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia 49:12391276.
  • Pennell PB. (2003) Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and lactation. Neurology 61:S35S42.
  • Pennell PB, Newport DJ, Stowe ZN, Helmers SL, Montgomery JQ, Henry TR. (2004) The impact of pregnancy and childbirth on the metabolism of lamotrigine. Neurology 62:292295.
  • Pennell PB, Koganti A, Helmers S, Beach A, Newman M, Newport DJ, Stowe ZN. (2005) The impact of pregnancy and childbirth on the elimination of levetiracetam [abstract]. Epilepsia 46:89.
  • Pennell PB, Peng L, Newport DJ, Ritchie JC, Koganti A, Holley DK, Newman M, Stowe ZN. (2008) Lamotrigine in pregnancy: clearance, therapeutic drug monitoring, and seizure frequency. Neurology 70:21302136.
  • Perucca E, Bialer M. (1996) The clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer antiepileptic drugs. Focus on topiramate, zonisamide and tiagabine. Clin Pharmacokinet 31:2946.
  • Petrenaite V, Sabers A, Hansen-Schwartz J. (2005) Individual changes in lamotrigine plasma concentrations during pregnancy. Epilepsy Res 65:185188.
  • Petrenaite V, Sabers A, Hansen-Schwartz J. (2009) Seizure deterioration in women treated with oxcarbazepine during pregnancy. Epilepsy Res 84:245249.
  • Philbert A, Pedersen B, Dam M. (1985) Concentration of valproate during pregnancy, in the newborn and in breast milk. Acta Neurol Scand 72:460463.
  • Radtke RA. (2001) Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam. Epilepsia 42(Suppl. 4):2427.
  • Ramsay RE, Strauss RG, Wilder BJ, Willmore LJ. (1978) Status epilepticus in pregnancy: effect of phenytoin malabsorption on seizure control. Neurology 28:8589.
  • Rating D, Nau H, Jager-Roman E, Gopfert-Geyer I, Koch S, Beck-Mannagetta G, Schmidt D, Helge H. (1982) Teratogenic and pharmacokinetic studies of primidone during pregnancy and in the offspring of epileptic women. Acta Paediatr Scand 71:301311.
  • Reimers A, Brodtkorb E. (2012) Second-generation antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy: a guide for clinicians. Expert Rev Neurother 12:707717.
  • Reimers A, Helde G, Brathen G, Brodtkorb E. (2011) Lamotrigine and its N2-glucuronide during pregnancy: the significance of renal clearance and estradiol. Epilepsy Res 94:198205.
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2003) Guideline No. 70. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults: a national clinical guideline recommended for use in Scotland. Available at http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/70/index.html.
  • Seino M, Naruto S, Ito T, Miyazaki H. (1995) Zonisamide. In Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS (Eds) Antiepileptic drugs. 4th ed. Raven Press, New York, pp. 10011024.
  • Sturgiss SN, Dunlop W, Davison JM. (1994) Renal haemodynamics and tubular function in human pregnancy. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol 8:209234.
  • Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V. (1982) Pregnancy and fetal complications in epileptic pregnancies. In Janz D, Dam M, Bossi L, Helge H, Richens A, Schmidt D (Eds) Epilepsy, pregnancy, and the child. Raven Press, New York, pp. 5359.
  • The EURAP study. (2006) Seizure control and treatment in pregnancy: observations from the EURAP epilepsy pregnancy registry. Neurology 66:354360.
  • Tomson T, Battino D. (2007) Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring of newer antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and the puerperium. Clin Pharmacokinet 46:209219.
  • Tomson T, Battino D. (2012) Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Lancet Neurol 11:803813.
  • Tomson T, Lindbom U, Ekqvist B, Sundqvist A. (1994a) Disposition of carbamazepine and phenytoin in pregnancy. Epilepsia 35:131135.
  • Tomson T, Lindbom U, Ekqvist B, Sundqvist A. (1994b) Epilepsy and pregnancy: a prospective study of seizure control in relation to free and total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and phenytoin. Epilepsia 35:122130.
  • Tomson T, Öhman I, Vitols S. (1997) Lamotrigine in pregnancy and lactation: a case report. Epilepsia 38:10391041.
  • Tomson T, Luef G, Sabers A, Pittschieler S, Öhman I. (2006) Valproate effects on kinetics of lamotrigine in pregnancy and treatment with oral contraceptives. Neurology 67:12971299.
  • Tomson T, Palm R, Kallen K, Ben-Menachem E, Soderfeldt B, Danielsson B, Johansson R, Luef G, Ohman I. (2007) Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam during pregnancy, delivery, in the neonatal period, and lactation. Epilepsia 48:11111116.
  • Tomson T, Battino D, Bonizzoni E, Craig J, Lindhout D, Sabers A, Perucca E, Vajda F. (2011) Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry. Lancet Neurol 10:609617.
  • Tran TA, Leppik IE, Blesi K, Sathanandan ST, Remmel R. (2002) Lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy. Neurology 59:251255.
  • Westin AA, Reimers A, Helde G, Nakken KO, Brodtkorb E. (2008) Serum concentration/dose ratio of levetiracetam before, during and after pregnancy. Seizure 17:192198.
  • Westin AA, Nakken KO, Johannessen SI, Reimers A, Lillestolen KM, Brodtkorb E. (2009) Serum concentration/dose ratio of topiramate during pregnancy. Epilepsia 50:480485.
  • Wlodarczyk BJ, Palacios AM, George TM, Finnell RH. (2012) Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy outcomes. Am J Med Genet A 158A:20712090.
  • Yerby MS, Friel PN, Miller DQ. (1985) Carbamazepine protein binding and disposition in pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit 7:269273.
  • Yerby MS, Friel PN, McCormick K, Koerner M, Van Allen M, Leavitt AM, Sells CJ, Yerby JA. (1990) Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants in pregnancy: alterations in plasma protein binding. Epilepsy Res 5:223228.
  • Yerby MS, Friel PN, McCormick K. (1992) Antiepileptic drug disposition during pregnancy. Neurology 42:1216.