Intravenous topiramate: Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety with the oral formulation in healthy volunteers

Authors

  • Anne M. Clark,

    1. Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • Robert L. Kriel,

    1. Center for Orphan Drug Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    2. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • Ilo E. Leppik,

    1. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    2. MINCEP Epilepsy Care, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    3. Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • Susan E. Marino,

    1. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    2. The Center for Clinical and Cognitive Neuropharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • Usha Mishra,

    1. Center for Orphan Drug Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    2. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • Richard C. Brundage,

    1. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
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  • James C. Cloyd

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Orphan Drug Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    2. Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    3. Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A
    • Address correspondence to James Cloyd, Center for Orphan Drug Research, University of Minnesota, 2001 6th St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A. E-mail: cloyd001@umn.edu

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Summary

Purpose

Although oral topiramate (TPM) products are widely prescribed for migraines and epilepsy, injectable TPM is not available for human use. We have developed a solubilized TPM formulation using a cyclodextrin matrix, Captisol with the long-term goal of evaluating its safety and efficacy in neonatal seizures. This study in healthy adult volunteers was performed as required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to demonstrate the pharmacokinetics and safety prior to initiation of studies involving children. This study allowed investigation of absolute bioavailability, absolute clearance, and distribution volume of TPM, information that could not be obtained without using an intravenous TPM formulation.

Methods

This study was an open-label, two-way crossover of oral and intravenous TPM in 12 healthy adult volunteers. Initially two subjects received 50 mg, intravenously and orally. Following evidence of safety in the first two subjects, 10 individuals received 100 mg doses of intravenous and oral TPM randomly sequenced 2 weeks apart. Blood samples were taken just prior to drug administration and at intervals up to 120 h afterwards. TPM was measured using a validated liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry method. Concentration-time data were analyzed using a noncompartmental approach with WinNonlin 5.2.

Key Findings

All subjects completed the study. The mean (±standard deviation) absolute oral bioavailability was 109% (±10.8%). For intravenous and oral TPM the mean distribution volumes were 1.06 L/kg (±0.29) and 0.94 L/kg (±0.24). Clearances were 1.33 L/h (±0.26) and 1.22 L/h (±0.26). The half-life values were 42.3 h (±6.2) and 41.2 h (±7.5). No changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiography, or infusion site reactions were observed. Mild central nervous system cognitive adverse events and ataxia occurred between dosing and 2 h post dose with both intravenous and oral administration. With intravenous TPM, these adverse effects occurred as early as during the 15-min intravenous infusion.

Significance

In healthy adults, oral TPM is bioequivalent to intravenous TPM, and infusion of 50–100 mg over 15 min is safe. Neurologic effects occurred during the infusion, demonstrating that TPM rapidly diffuses into the brain, which supports its evaluation for neonatal seizures. Results from this pilot study will inform the design of subsequent studies in children and newborns, including controlled clinical trials intended to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous TPM for neonatal seizures. In addition, our results provide support for the further development of intravenous TPM as bridge therapy for older children and adults in whom oral TPM therapy is interrupted.

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