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Keywords:

  • Antiepileptic drugs;
  • Epilepsy;
  • Glutamate;
  • Perampanel;
  • Pooled analysis

Summary

Purpose

Three phase III studies (304 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00699972], 305 [NCT00699582], 306 [NCT00700310]) evaluated perampanel, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial seizures. We report post hoc analyses of pooled study data by randomized dose.

Methods

Patients with partial seizures despite receiving 1–3 antiepileptic drugs were randomized to once-daily placebo, perampanel 8 or 12 mg (studies 304, 305), or placebo, perampanel 2, 4, or 8 mg (study 306). Studies included a 6-week baseline period and double-blind treatment phase (6-week titration; 13-week maintenance). Primary end points were median change in partial seizure frequency (baseline vs. double-blind phase) and percentage of patients achieving ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency (baseline vs. maintenance). Here, these end points, together with secondary, exploratory, and safety end points, were assessed using pooled study data.

Key Findings

The pooled intent-to-treat analysis set (randomized, treated patients with any seizure data) included 1,478 patients. Median changes in partial seizure frequency were greater with perampanel than placebo (perampanel 4 mg, −23.3%; 8 mg, −28.8%; 12 mg, −27.2%; placebo, −12.8%; p < 0.01, each dose vs. placebo), as were 50% responder rates (perampanel 4 mg, 28.5%; 8 mg, 35.3%; 12 mg, 35.0%; placebo, 19.3%; p < 0.05, each dose vs. placebo). In addition, median changes in complex partial plus secondary generalized seizure frequency were also greater with perampanel than placebo (perampanel 4 mg, −31.2%; 8 mg, −35.6%; 12 mg, −28.6%; placebo, −13.9%). Perampanel was generally well tolerated. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness, somnolence, and headache. Most TEAEs were mild/moderate; relatively few patients experienced severe TEAEs (placebo, 5.4%; perampanel, 8.9%) or serious TEAEs (placebo, 5.0%; perampanel, 5.5%). There were no deaths and no clinically important mean changes in laboratory values, electrocardiography (ECG) findings, or vital signs.

Significance

Perampanel reduced partial seizure frequency and improved responder rates compared with placebo, with an acceptable tolerability profile.