• Seizure prediction;
  • Self-prediction;
  • Localization-related epilepsy;
  • Seizure diary;
  • Electronic diary;
  • Premonitory symptoms;
  • Seizure precipitants



A subset of patients with epilepsy successfully self-predicted seizures in a paper diary study. We conducted an e-diary study to ensure that prediction precedes seizures, and to characterize the prodromal features and time windows that underlie self-prediction.


Subjects 18 or older with localization-related epilepsy (LRE) and ≥3 seizures per month maintained an e-diary, reporting a.m./p.m. data daily, including mood, premonitory symptoms, and all seizures. Self-prediction was rated by, “How likely are you to experience a seizure (time frame)?” Five choices ranged from almost certain (>95% chance) to very unlikely. Relative odds of seizure (odds ratio, OR) within time frames was examined using Poisson models with log normal random effects to adjust for multiple observations.

Key Findings

Nineteen subjects reported 244 eligible seizures. OR for prediction choices within 6 h was as high as 9.31 (CI 1.92–45.23) for “almost certain.” Prediction was most robust within 6 h of diary entry, and remained significant up to 12 h. For nine best predictors, average sensitivity was 50%. Older age contributed to successful self-prediction, and self-prediction appeared to be driven by mood and premonitory symptoms. In multivariate modeling of seizure occurrence, self-prediction (2.84; CI 1.68–4.81), favorable change in mood (0.82; CI 0.67–0.99), and number of premonitory symptoms (1.11; CI 1.00–1.24) were significant.


Some persons with epilepsy can self-predict seizures. In these individuals, the odds of a seizure following a positive prediction are high. Predictions were robust, not attributable to recall bias, and were related to self-awareness of mood and premonitory features. The 6-h prediction window is suitable for the development of preemptive therapy.