This report was written by experts selected by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and was approved for publication by the ILAE. Opinions expressed by the authors, however, do not necessarily represent official policy or position of the ILAE.
Minimum requirements for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A staged approach
A report from the International League Against Epilepsy Nonepileptic Seizures Task Force
Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy
Volume 54, Issue 11, pages 2005–2018, November 2013
How to Cite
Epilepsia, 54(11):2005–2018, 2013
- Issue published online: 6 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 AUG 2013
- Nonepileptic seizures;
- Differential diagnosis;
- Video EEG monitoring;
An international consensus group of clinician-researchers in epilepsy, neurology, neuropsychology, and neuropsychiatry collaborated with the aim of developing clear guidance on standards for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Because the gold standard of video electroencephalography (vEEG) is not available worldwide, or for every patient, the group delineated a staged approach to PNES diagnosis. Using a consensus review of the literature, this group evaluated key diagnostic approaches. These included: history, EEG, ambulatory EEG, vEEG/monitoring, neurophysiologic, neurohumoral, neuroimaging, neuropsychological testing, hypnosis, and conversation analysis. Levels of diagnostic certainty were developed including possible, probable, clinically established, and documented diagnosis, based on the availability of history, witnessed event, and investigations, including vEEG. The aim and hope of this report is to provide greater clarity about the process and certainty of the diagnosis of PNES, with the intent to improve the care for people with epilepsy and nonepileptic seizures.