• 1
    Ajmone-Marsan C, Goldhammer L. (1973) Clinical ictal patterns and electrographic data in cases of partial seizures of frontal-central-parietal origin. In Brazier MAB (Ed) Epilepsy: its phenomena in man (UCLA forum in medical sciences). Academic Press Inc., New York, pp. 235258.
  • 2
    Alexander GE, Crutcher MD. (1990) Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends Neurosci 13:266271.
  • 3
    Badre D, D'Esposito M. (2009) Is the rostro-caudal axis of the frontal lobe hierarchical? Nat Rev Neurosci 10:659669.
  • 4
    Bagla R, Skidmore CT. (2011) Frontal lobe seizures. Neurologist 17:125135.
  • 5
    Bancaud J, Talairach J. (1992) Clinical semiology of frontal lobe seizures. Adv Neurol 57:358.
  • 6
    Bancaud J, Talairach J, Bonis A, Schaub C, Szikla G, Morel P, Bordas-Ferrer M. (1965) La stéréo-électroencéphalographie dans l'épilepsie: informations neurophysiopathologiques apportées par l'investigation fonctionnelle stéreotaxique. Masson et Cie, Paris.
  • 7
    Bancaud J, Angelergues R, Bernouilli C, Bonis A, Bordas-Ferrer M, Bresson M, Buser P, Covello L, Morel P, Szikla G, Takeda A, Talairach J. (1970) Functional stereotaxic exploration (SEEG) of epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28:8586.
  • 8
    Barbas H, Pandya DN. (1989) Architecture and intrinsic connections of the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol 286:353375.
  • 9
    Barlow GW. (1996) Ethological units of behavior. In Houck LD, Drickamer LC (Eds) Foundations of animal behavior: classic papers with commentaries. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 138153.
  • 10
    Bartolomei F, Barbeau E, Gavaret M, Guye M, McGonigal A, Régis J, Chauvel P. (2004) Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in déjà vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology 63:858864.
  • 11
    Bartolomei F, Trébuchon A, Gavaret M, Régis J, Wendling F, Chauvel P. (2005) Acute alteration of emotional behaviour in epileptic seizures is related to transient desynchrony in emotion-regulation networks. Clin Neurophysiol 116:24732479.
  • 12
    Bates JF, Goldman-Rakic PS. (1993) Prefrontal connections of medial motor areas in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol 336:211228.
  • 13
    Beleza P, Pinho J. (2011) Frontal lobe epilepsy. J Clin Neurosci 18:593600.
  • 14
    Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Houchard KR, Zhuang X. (2005) Sequential super-stereotypy of an instinctive fixed action pattern in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice: a model of obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette's. BMC Biol 3:4.
  • 15
    Bien CG, Szinay M, Wagner J, Clusmann H, Becker AJ, Urbach H. (2009) Characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients with refractory magnetic resonance imaging-negative epilepsies. Arch Neurol 66:14911499.
  • 16
    Biraben A, Taussig D, Thomas P, Even C, Vignal JP, Scarabin JM, Chauvel P. (2001) Fear as the main feature of epileptic seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70:186191.
  • 17
    Bleasel A, Comair Y, Lüders HO. (1996) Surgical ablations of the mesial frontal lobe in humans. Adv Neurol 70:217235.
  • 18
    Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J. (2001) Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 42:12121218.
  • 19
    Bonelli SB, Lurger S, Zimprich F, Stogmann E, Assem-Hilger E, Baumgartner C. (2007) Clinical seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 48:517523.
  • 20
    Chauvel P, Trottier S, Vignal JP, Bancaud J. (1992) Somatomotor seizures of frontal lobe origin. Adv Neurol 57:185232.
  • 21
    Chauvel P, Kliemann F, Vignal JP, Chodkiewicz JP, Talairach J, Bancaud J. (1995) The clinical signs and symptoms of frontal lobe seizures. Phenomenology and classification. Adv Neurol 66:115125; discussion 125–126.
  • 22
    Damasio AR. (1998) Emotion in the perspective of an integrated nervous system. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 26:8386.
  • 23
    Devinsky O, Morrell MJ, Vogt BA. (1995) Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour. Brain 118(Pt 1):279306.
  • 24
    Edwards MJ, Lang AE, Bhatia KP. (2012) Stereotypies: a critical appraisal and suggestion of a clinically useful definition. Mov Disord 27:179185.
  • 25
    Ekman P. (1993) Facial expression and emotion. Am Psychol 48:384392.
  • 26
    Fuster JM. (2001) The prefrontal cortex–an update: time is of the essence. Neuron 30:319333.
  • 27
    Gardella E, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA. (2006) Ictal grasping: prevalence and characteristics in seizures with different semiology. Epilepsia 47(Suppl. 5):5963.
  • 28
    Gardella E, Rubboli G, Francione S, Tassi L, Lo Russo G, Grillner S, Tassinari CA. (2008) Seizure-related automatic locomotion triggered by intracerebral electrical stimulation. Epileptic Disord 10:247252.
  • 29
    Ghashghaei HT, Hilgetag CC, Barbas H. (2007) Sequence of information processing for emotions based on the anatomic dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Neuroimage 34:905923.
  • 30
    Goldman-Rakic PS. (1988) Topography of cognition: parallel distributed networks in primate association cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci 11:137156.
  • 31
    Graybiel AM. (2008) Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 31:359387.
  • 32
    Jobst BC, Siegel AM, Thadani VM, Roberts DW, Rhodes HC, Williamson PD. (2000) Intractable seizures of frontal lobe origin: clinical characteristics, localizing signs, and results of surgery. Epilepsia 41:11391152.
  • 33
    Koechlin E, Ody C, Kouneiher F. (2003) The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science 302:11811185.
  • 34
    Kotagal P, Arunkumar G, Hammel J, Mascha E. (2003) Complex partial seizures of frontal lobe onset statistical analysis of ictal semiology. Seizure 12:268281.
  • 35
    Kriegel MF, Roberts DW, Jobst BC. (2012) Orbitofrontal and insular epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol 29:385391.
  • 36
    Lashley KS. (1951) The problem of serial order in behavior. California Institute of Technology, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • 37
    Laskowitz DT, Sperling MR, French JA, O'Connor MJ. (1995) The syndrome of frontal lobe epilepsy: characteristics and surgical management. Neurology 45:780787.
  • 38
    Lee RW, Worrell GA. (2012) Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol 29:379384.
  • 39
    Leiguarda RC, Nouzeilles MI, Ugarnes G, Amengual A, Roldán E, Fridman E, D'Giano C, Merello M. (2008) Ictal non-forced grasping behaviour. Eur J Neurol 15:169172.
  • 40
    Ludwig B, Marsan CA, Van Buren J. (1975) Cerebral seizures of probable orbitofrontal origin. Epilepsia 16:141158.
  • 41
    Manford M, Fish DR, Shorvon SD. (1996) An analysis of clinical seizure patterns and their localizing value in frontal and temporal lobe epilepsies. Brain 119(Pt 1):1740.
  • 42
    McGonigal A, Bartolomei F, Régis J, Guye M, Gavaret M, Trébuchon-Da Fonseca A, Dufour H, Figarella-Branger D, Girard N, Péragut JC, Chauvel P. (2007) Stereoelectroencephalography in presurgical assessment of MRI-negative epilepsy. Brain 130:31693183.
  • 43
    Mesulam M, Mufson E. (1985) The insula of Reil in man and monkey. In Peters A, Jones EG (Eds) Cerebral cortex. Plenum, New York, pp. 179226.
  • 44
    Morecraft RJ, Tanji J. (2009) Cingulofrontal interactions and the cingulate motor areas. In Vogt B (Ed) Cingulate neurobiology and disease. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 113144.
  • 45
    Nobili L, Francione S, Mai R, Cardinale F, Castana L, Tassi L, Sartori I, Didato G, Citterio A, Colombo N, Galli C, Lo Russo G, Cossu M. (2007) Surgical treatment of drug-resistant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Brain 130:561573.
  • 46
    O'Brien TJ, Mosewich RK, Britton JW, Cascino GD, So EL. (2008) History and seizure semiology in distinguishing frontal lobe seizures and temporal lobe seizures. Epilepsy Res 82:177182.
  • 47
    O'Muircheartaigh J, Richardson MP. (2012) Epilepsy and the frontal lobes. Cortex 48:144155.
  • 48
    Petrides M, Pandya DN. (1994) Comparative architectonic analysis of the human and the macaque frontal cortex. In Boller F, Grafman J (Eds) Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol. 9 Elsevier, Amsterdam., pp. 1758.
  • 49
    Pickenhain L. (1988) A neuroscientist's view on theories of complex movement behaviour. In Meijer OG, Roth K (Eds) Advances in psychology. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 463487.
  • 50
    R Core Development Team. (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL
  • 51
    Rasmussen T. (1983) Characteristics of a pure culture of frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 24:482493.
  • 52
    Rheims S, Ryvlin P, Scherer C, Minotti L, Hoffmann D, Guenot M, Mauguière F, Benabid AL, Kahane P. (2008) Analysis of clinical patterns and underlying epileptogenic zones of hypermotor seizures. Epilepsia 49:20302040.
  • 53
    Ridley RM. (1994) The psychology of perserverative and stereotyped behaviour. Prog Neurobiol 44:221231.
  • 54
    Rolnick J, Parvizi J. (2011) Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law. Epilepsy Behav 20:423427.
  • 55
    Schindler K, Elger CE, Lehnertz K. (2007) Changes of EEG synchronization during low-frequency electric stimulation of the seizure onset zone. Epilepsy Res 77:108119.
  • 56
    Semendeferi K, Lu A, Schenker N, Damasio H. (2002) Humans and great apes share a large frontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 5:272276.
  • 57
    So NK. (1998) Mesial frontal epilepsy. Epilepsia 39(Suppl. 4):S49S61.
  • 58
    Talairach J, Bancaud J, Geier S, Bordas-Ferrer M, Bonis A, Szikla G, Rusu M. (1973) The cingulate gyrus and human behaviour. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 34:4552.
  • 59
    Talairach J, Bancaud J, Bonis A, Szikla G, Trottier S, Vignal JP, Chauvel P, Munari C, Chodkievicz JP. (1992) Surgical therapy for frontal epilepsies. Adv Neurol 57:707732.
  • 60
    Tassinari CA, Rubboli G, Gardella E, Cantalupo G, Calandra-Buonaura G, Vedovello M, Alessandria M, Gandini G, Cinotti S, Zamponi N, Meletti S. (2005) Central pattern generators for a common semiology in fronto-limbic seizures and in parasomnias. A neuroethologic approach. Neurol Sci 26(Suppl. 3):s225s232.
  • 61
    Téllez-Zenteno JF, Dhar R, Wiebe S. (2005) Long-term seizure outcomes following epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain 128:11881198.
  • 62
    Tharp BR. (1972) Orbital frontal seizures. An unique electroencephalographic and clinical syndrome. Epilepsia 13:627642.
  • 63
    Wieser HG, Swartz BE, Delgado-Escueta AV, Bancaud J, Walsh GO, Maldonado H, Saint-Hilaire JM. (1992) Differentiating frontal lobe seizures from temporal lobe seizures. Adv Neurol 57:267285.
  • 64
    Wieser HG, Blume WT, Fish D, Goldensohn E, Hufnagel A, King D, Sperling MR, Lüders H, Pedley TA; Commission on Neurosurgery of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). (2001) ILAE Commission Report. Proposal for a new classification of outcome with respect to epileptic seizures following epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia 42:282286.
  • 65
    Williamson PD, Spencer DD, Spencer SS, Novelly RA, Mattson RH. (1985) Complex partial seizures of frontal lobe origin. Ann Neurol 18:497504.