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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Specific scope

This Standard describes the phosphine fumigation of empty premises, warehouses, structures and containers to control stored product insects in general.

Specific approval and amendment

First approved in 2012–09.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

After the storage of commodities infested by stored-product pests, some of these pests may remain in empty premises, warehouses, structures and containers. Disinfestation should be conducted in the empty storage areas before new consignments arrive to avoid further contamination of consignments stored in the facilities Experience from across the world has shown that using phosphine to disinfest facilities is effective.

Commodities/regulated articles

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Empty storage areas including premises warehouses, structures, silos, ship holds and containers.

Pests

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Stored product pests in general (see Table 1).

Table 1. Important stored product pests that can be controlled with phosphine
Coleoptera Acanthoscelides obtectus ACANOB
Anthrenus museorum ANTRMU
Araecerus fasciculatus ARAEFA
Attagenus pellio ATTGPE
Callosobruchus chinensis CALSCH
Caryedon serratus CARESE
Cryptolestes ferrugineus CRYLFE
Dermestes lardarius DERMLA
Gnathocerus cornutus GNATCO
Lasioderma serricorne LASDSE
Necrobia rufipes NECRRU
Niptus hololeucus NIPTHO
Oryzaephilus surinamensis ORYZSU
Prostephanus truncatus PROETR
Ptinus fur PTINFU
Ptinus tectus PTINTE
Rhizopertha dominica RHITDO
Sitophilus granarius CALAGR
Sitophilus oryzae CALAOR
Sitophilus zeamais CALAZM
Stegobium paniceum STEGPA
Tenebrio molitor TENBMO
Tenebroides mauritanicus TEBRMA
Tribolium castaneum TRIBCA
Tribolium confusum TRIBCO
Lepidoptera Corcyra cephalonica CORRCE
Ephestia cautella EPHECA
Ephestia elutella EPHEEL
Ephestia kuehniella EPHEKU
Nemapogon granella TINEGR
Plodia interpunctella PLODIN
Sitotroga cerealella SITTCE

It should be noted that Trogoderma granarium is excluded because of the high level of resistance of diapausing larvae of this pest. Treatment to control this pest will require a longer exposure time (Shamilov & Mordkovich, 2012).

Treatment schedule

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Treatment name: phosphine fumigation.

Treatment type: chemical.

Formulation: fumigant, packed as a bag, plate or pellets.

Active substance: aluminium phosphine 56% or magnesium phosphine 56%.

Treatment conditions

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Mode of action: fumigation at atmospheric pressure.

Number of applications: before storage of commodities.

Waiting period

The storage areas can be used only when monitoring instruments show that gas concentrations have fallen to, or are below, the toxic level value (TLV) set for phosphine.

Efficacy of treatment

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Fumigation with phosphine is carried out as a disinfestation or quarantine measure against stored product pests in structures such as flour mills or food factories, or in empty freight containers and other transport, including aircraft (Hole et al., 1976; Bell, 2000).

Phosphine fumigation has been found to be effective in many countries in the EPPO region and worldwide. The schedules described in Table 2 are the result of many years' experience and have been tested at the All-Russian Plant Quarantine Centre. The results show that these schedules are acceptable (100% mortality of the pests in Table 1 was achieved).

Table 2. Application rate per treatment (gas dose) in empty premises, warehouses, structures, containers, silos and ship holds
ImplementationActive substanceDose (g PH3 m−3)aMinimum exposure time (days)Minimum temperature (°C)
  1. a

    The table gives minimum exposure periods in days for a dosage of 1 and 2 g PH3 m−3; 1 day should be added to the exposure times to allow for development and distribution of the fumigant. The dose may need to be increased by 1 g PH3 m−3 if fumigation conditions are poor (e.g. not very gas tight conditions or low relative humidity), or if resistant species are found or believed to be present. However, it is good practice to perform phosphine fumigation only in gas-tight conditions.

Empty premises, warehouses, structuresAluminium phosphine2710
620
Magnesium phosphine2610
520
Empty containers, silos and ship holdsAluminium phosphine1510
420
Magnesium phosphine1410
320

Fumigation conditions are important, consequently the dose to be used depends on the conditions, particularly relative temperature and humidity (Wainman et al., 1975). When these conditions are not acceptable during fumigation, it is important to use a longer exposure time. Most data for the fumigation with phosphine was obtained at 60% humidity and 20°C. Fumigation should not be performed below 10°C (Zakladnoi & Ratanova, 1973). The exposure times recommended in the schedule are minimum times.

The longer the fumigation time, the more effective the fumigation. Exposure time should be lengthened to allow for penetration of gas in all parts of storage areas. This is particularly important in the fumigation of large storage areas. It should be noted that there is little to be gained by extending the exposure period if the structure to be fumigated has not been carefully sealed, or if distribution of gas is poor and insects are not subjected to lethal concentration of phosphine (Mordkovich & Vashakmadze, 2001).

Notes

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References
  • To prevent the development of resistance, it is essential to avoid applications with sublethal doses (Maslov et al., 2007). Depending on fumigation circumstances, particularly low temperature and poor gas-tightness of the building/container, it is important to use longer exposure to achieve pest mortality in all parts of the storage areas (Mordkovich, 2003).
  • The most important drawbacks of phosphine are its slow activity (3–15 days); the rapid increase in insect resistance to this compound worldwide; the flammability above concentrations of 1.8% by volume; and the corrosion of copper (Mordkovich, 2003). Phosphine corrodes copper and its alloys, therefore electrical items need protection from exposure to the fumigant. Phosphine also reacts to certain metallic salts, which are contained in sensitive items such as photographic film and some inorganic pigments (Navarro, 2006).

Enquiries

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References

Further information may be obtained from the national authorities responsible for the registration of this fumigant.

All-Russian Plant Quarantine Center, Disinfection Department, Dr Artur S. Shamilov, e-mail: artshamilov@mail.ru

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Commodities/regulated articles
  5. Pests
  6. Treatment schedule
  7. Treatment conditions
  8. Efficacy of treatment
  9. Notes
  10. Enquiries
  11. References
  • Bell CH (2000) Fumigation in the 21st century Crop Protection. Crop Protection 19, 563569.
  • Hole BD, Bell CH, Mills KA & Goodship G (1976) The toxicity of phosphine to all developmental stages of thirteen species of stored product beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research 12, 235244.
  • Maslov MI, Magomedov USh & Mordkovich YaB (2007) Osnovi karantinnogo obezzarazhivaniya [Basic of quarantine disinfestation]. 195p. Nauchnaya kniga, Voronezh (in Russian).
  • Mordkovich YaB & Vashakmadze GG (2001) Karantinnaya fumigatsiya [Quarantine fumigation]. 318p. Rostovskii universitet, Rostov on Don (in Russian).
  • Mordkovich YaB (2003) Rezistentnost' vreditelei k fumigantam [Pests resistant to fumigants] (in Russian). Zaschita I karantin rastenii 9, 3536.
  • Navarro S (2006) New global challenges to the use of gaseous treatments in stored products. 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection Brazilian Post-Harvest Association (ABRAPOS).
  • Shamilov AS & Mordkovich YaB (2012) Conclusion on phosphine fumigation standards. 4p. (in press)
  • Wainman HE, Chakrabarti B, Allan ENW & Mills KA (1975) Fumigation with phosphine of stacked flour in polythene-clad sacks. International Pest Control 17, 48.
  • Zakladnoi GA & Ratanova VF (1973) Vrediteli khlebnikh zapasov [Stored products pests]. 275p. M. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).