One of the predictions from evolutionary game theory is that individuals will increase their willingness (i.e. become primed) to escalate aggression when they detect the presence of a limiting resource. Here, we test this prediction in the context of prey odour priming escalation decisions during vision-based encounters by Evarcha culicivora. This East African jumping spider (Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Unlike many salticid species, it also expresses pronounced mutual mate choice. As predicted, we show here that, in the presence of odour from their preferred prey, both sexes of E. culicivora escalate during vision-based same-sex encounters. This is further evidence that the odour of blood-carrying mosquitoes is salient to this salticid. For both sexes of E. culicivora, this particular prey may be a resource that matters in the context of intrasexual selection.