Toward a general evolutionary theory of oncogenesis
Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Special Issue: Evolution and Cancer
Volume 6, Issue 1, pages 70–81, January 2013
How to Cite
Ewald, P. W. and Swain Ewald, H. A. (2013), Toward a general evolutionary theory of oncogenesis. Evolutionary Applications, 6: 70–81. doi: 10.1111/eva.12023
- Issue published online: 21 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 SEP 2012
- Rena Shulsky Foundation
- 2011. Overlooking evolution: a systematic analysis of cancer relapse and therapeutic resistance research. PLoS ONE 6:e26100. , , , , and .
- 2011. Telomerase and primary T cells: biology and immortalization for adoptive immunotherapy. Immunotherapy 3:407–421.
- 1995. Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. MALT Lymphoma Study Group. Lancet 345:1591–1594. , , , , , , and .
- 1994. Inhibition of apoptosis by BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 83:2038–2044. , , , , and .
- 2004. Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression. Nature 432:332–337. , , and .
- 2010. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs): Positive and negative regulators in tumor cell adhesion. Seminars in Cancer Biology 20:161–168. , and .
- 2009. A review of human carcinogens–Part B: biological agents. The Lancet Oncology 10:321–322. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Peto's Paradox: evolution's prescription for cancer prevention. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 26:175–182. , and .
- 2011. 2011: the immune hallmarks of cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 60:319–326. , , , , and
- 2011. Initial genome sequencing and analysis of multiple myeloma. Nature 471:467–472. , , , , , , et al.
- 2006. Stem cells and cancer: two faces of eve. Cell 124:1111–1115. , and .
- 2006. Cancer stem cells–perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR Workshop on cancer stem cells. Cancer Research 66:9339–9344. , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Evolutionary biology of cancer. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20:545–552. , and .
- 1983. The Extended Phenotype. The Gene as the Unit of Selection. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 2011. Evolved tumor suppression: why are we so good at not getting cancer? Cancer Research 71:3739–3744.
- 2000. The molecular biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 96:3343–3356. , , and .
- 2002. New functions for the matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression. Nature Reviews Cancer 2:161–174. , and .
- 2005. The fibroblastic coconspirator in cancer progression. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 70:383–388. , , and .
- 2010. Tumors as organs: complex tissues that interface with the entire organism. Developmental Cell 18:884–901. , , and .
- 1980. Evolutionary biology and treatment of signs and symptoms of infectious disease.. Journal of Theoretical Biology 86:169–176.
- 2009. An evolutionary perspective on parasitism as a cause of cancer. Adv Parasitol 68:21–43.
- 2011. Evolutionary insights for immunological interventions. In A. Poiani, ed. Pragmatic Evolution, pp. 115–132. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. , and .
- 2012. Infection, mutation, and cancer evolution. Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany) 90:535–541. , and .
- 1982. Biological diversity in metastatic neoplasms: origins and implications. Science 217:998–1003. , and .
- 2008. Stromal gene expression predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer. Nature Medicine 14:518–527. , , , , , , et al.
- 2008. A microenvironmental model of carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 8:56–61. , and
- 2012. Evolutionary dynamics of carcinogenesis and why targeted therapy does not work. Nature Reviews Cancer 12:487–493. , , and .
- 2006. Sustained versus transient ERK1/2 signaling underlies the anti- and proapoptotic effects of oxidative stress in human RPE cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 47:4614–4623. , , , , , and .
- 2000. Cancer. The Evolutionary Legacy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 2002. Cancer causation: the Darwinian downside of past success? The Lancet Oncology 3:244–251.
- 2012. Clonal evolution in cancer. Nature 481:306–313. , and .
- 1996. Development of retinoblastoma in the absence of telomerase activity. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:1152–1157. , , , , and
- 2000. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100:57–70. , and .
- 2011. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell 144:646–674. , and .
- 2008. Papillomaviruses – to vaccination and beyond. Biochemistry (Moscow) 73:498–503.
- 2010. Infections Causing Human Cancer. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
- 1998. The cellular basis of tumor progression. International Review of Cytology 177:1–56. , and .
- 2000. Tumor angiogenesis: past, present and the near future. Carcinogenesis 21:505–515.
- 2011. The role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and invasion. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 106:353–379. , , and .
- 2009. Molecular origins of cancer: molecular basis of colorectal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 361:2449–2460. , and .
- 2012. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. The Lancet Oncology 13:607–615. , , , , , , and .
- 2009. ER stress protects from retinal degeneration. EMBO Journal 28:1296–1307. , , , , , , et al.
- 2006. Cancer as an evolutionary and ecological process. Nature Reviews Cancer 6:924–935. , , , and .
- 2010. Advances in understanding cancer genomes through second-generation sequencing. Nature Reviews Genetics 11:685–696. , , and .
- 2005. Mechanisms of disease: inflammation and the origins of cancer. Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 2:90–97; quiz 91 p following 113. , and .
- 2004. Friends or foes - bipolar effects of the tumour stroma in cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 4:839–849. , and .
- 2012. The life history of 21 breast cancers. Cell 149:994–1007. , , , , , , et al.
- 1976. The clonal evolution of tumor cell populations. Science 194:23–28.
- 2005. Human retinoblastoma cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by death receptors: role of caspase-8 gene silencing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:358–366. , , , , , , , , , , and
- 2010. Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue. Cell Stem Cell 6:175–181. , , , , , , et al.
- 2008. MAP kinase pathways in UV-induced apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelium ARPE19 cells. Apoptosis 13:343–353. , and .
- 2009. Why does cytotoxic chemotherapy cure only some cancers? Nat Clin Pract Oncol 6:43–52. , , , and
- 2011. Cancer-associated fibroblasts and their putative role in potentiating the initiation and development of epithelial ovarian cancer. Neoplasia 13:393–405. , , , and .
- 2008. Distinct tumor suppressor mechanisms evolve in rodent species that differ in size and lifespan. Aging Cell 7:813–823. , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Accurate reconstruction of the temporal order of mutations in neoplastic progression. Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia) 4:1135–1144. , , and .
- 2009. Cancer stem cells: a guide for skeptics. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 106:745–749.
- 2012. The origin and evolution of mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. Cell 150:264–278. , , , , , , et al.
- 2002. BCR-ABL-induced adhesion defects are tyrosine kinase-independent. Blood 99:4122–4130. , , , , , and .
- 1999. Telomerase activity and telomere length in lymphocytes from patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer 86:1056–1063. , , , and .
- 1995. Opposing effects of ERK and JNK-p38 MAP kinases on apoptosis. Science 270:1326–1331. , , , , and .
- 2003. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science 301:1547–1550. , , and .