Evolution and spread of glyphosate resistance in Conyza canadensis in California



Recent increases in glyphosate use in perennial crops of California, USA, are hypothesized to have led to an increase in selection and evolution of resistance to the herbicide in Conyza canadensis populations. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins and spread of resistance and to inform glyphosate resistance management strategies, we investigated the geographical distribution of glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis across and surrounding the Central Valley, its spatial relationship to groundwater protection areas (GWPA), and the genetic diversity and population structure and history using microsatellite markers. Frequencies of resistant individuals in 42 sampled populations were positively correlated with the size of GWPA within counties. Analyses of population genetic structure also supported spread of resistance in these areas. Bayesian clustering and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses revealed multiple independent origins of resistance within the Central Valley. Based on parameter estimation in the ABC analyses, resistant genotypes underwent expansion after glyphosate use began in agriculture, but many years before it was detected. Thus, diversity in weed control practices prior to herbicide regulation in GWPA probably kept resistance frequencies low. Regionally coordinated efforts to reduce seed dispersal and selection pressure are needed to manage glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis.