Predicting bird song from space
Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volume 6, Issue 6, pages 865–874, September 2013
How to Cite
Smith, T. B., Harrigan, R. J., Kirschel, A. N. G., Buermann, W., Saatchi, S., Blumstein, D. T., de Kort, S. R. and Slabbekoorn, H. (2013), Predicting bird song from space. Evolutionary Applications, 6: 865–874. doi: 10.1111/eva.12072
- Issue online: 27 AUG 2013
- Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 21 SEP 2012
- National Geographic Society
- NERC. Grant Number: GR3/85519A9
- Veneklasen Research Foundation, Royal Society. Grant Number: 571310.V703
- NSF. Grant Numbers: BSR 88-17336, IRCEB9977072
- NASA. Grant Number: IDS/03–0169-0347
- anthropogenic effects;
- avian song;
- behavioral ecology;
- random forests;
- remote sensing;
- reproductive isolation;
- spatial heterogeneity
Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data to predict animal behavior, in this case, bird song, across vast spatial scales. We use remotely sensed data to predict the song characteristics of the little greenbul (Andropadus virens), a widely distributed African passerine, found across secondary and mature rainforest habitats and the rainforest-savanna ecotone. Satellite data that captured ecosystem structure and function explained up to 66% of the variation in song characteristics. Song differences observed across habitats, including those between human-altered and mature rainforest, have the potential to lead to reproductive divergence, and highlight the impacts that both natural and anthropogenic change may have on natural populations. Our approach offers a novel means to examine the ecological correlates of animal behavior across large geographic areas with potential applications to both evolutionary and conservation biology.