Geographic population structure of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae suggests a role for the forest-savannah biome transition as a barrier to gene flow

Authors

  • Pinto J,

    Corresponding author
    • Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
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  • Egyir-Yawson A,

    1. Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    2. Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
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  • Vicente JL,

    1. Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
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  • Gomes B,

    1. Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
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  • Santolamazza F,

    1. Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy
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  • Moreno M,

    1. Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
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  • Charlwood JD,

    1. Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    2. Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
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  • Simard F,

    1. MIVEGEC (Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Genetique, Evolution et Contrôle), UMR IRD224-CNRS5290-UM1-UM2, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
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  • Elissa N,

    1. Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
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  • Weetman D,

    1. Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
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  • Donnelly MJ,

    1. Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
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  • Caccone A,

    1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
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  • della Torre A

    1. Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy
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Correspondence

João Pinto, Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 100, Lisbon 1349-008, Portugal.

Tel.: + 351 213 652 666;

fax: + 351 213 632 105;

e-mail: jpinto@ihmt.unl.pt

Abstract

The primary Afrotropical malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto has a complex population structure. In west Africa, this species is split into two molecular forms and displays local and regional variation in chromosomal arrangements and behaviors. To investigate patterns of macrogeographic population substructure, 25 An. gambiae samples from 12 African countries were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. This analysis detected the presence of additional population structuring, with the M-form being subdivided into distinct west, central, and southern African genetic clusters. These clusters are coincident with the central African rainforest belt and northern and southern savannah biomes, which suggests restrictions to gene flow associated with the transition between these biomes. By contrast, geographically patterned population substructure appears much weaker within the S-form.

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