Reviews and Synthesis
Infectious disease, shifting climates, and opportunistic predators: cumulative factors potentially impacting wild salmon declines
Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Special Issue: Evolutionary perspectives on wildlife disease: concepts and applications
Volume 7, Issue 7, pages 812–855, August 2014
How to Cite
Miller, K. M., Teffer, A., Tucker, S., Li, S., Schulze, A. D., Trudel, M., Juanes, F., Tabata, A., Kaukinen, K. H., Ginther, N. G., Ming, T. J., Cooke, S. J., Hipfner, J. M., Patterson, D. A. and Hinch, S. G. (2014), Infectious disease, shifting climates, and opportunistic predators: cumulative factors potentially impacting wild salmon declines. Evolutionary Applications, 7: 812–855. doi: 10.1111/eva.12164
- Issue published online: 27 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 27 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 6 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 6 NOV 2013
- Genome British Columbia
- cumulative impacts;
- ecological impacts;
- infectious disease;
- wild salmon
Emerging diseases are impacting animals under high-density culture, yet few studies assess their importance to wild populations. Microparasites selected for enhanced virulence in culture settings should be less successful maintaining infectivity in wild populations, as once the host dies, there are limited opportunities to infect new individuals. Instead, moderately virulent microparasites persisting for long periods across multiple environments are of greatest concern. Evolved resistance to endemic microparasites may reduce susceptibilities, but as barriers to microparasite distributions are weakened, and environments become more stressful, unexposed populations may be impacted and pathogenicity enhanced. We provide an overview of the evolutionary and ecological impacts of infectious diseases in wild salmon and suggest ways in which modern technologies can elucidate the microparasites of greatest potential import. We present four case studies that resolve microparasite impacts on adult salmon migration success, impact of river warming on microparasite replication, and infection status on susceptibility to predation. Future health of wild salmon must be considered in a holistic context that includes the cumulative or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors. These approaches will identify populations at greatest risk, critically needed to manage and potentially ameliorate the shifts in current or future trajectories of wild populations.