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References

  • 1
    Perkins, N.R., Reid, S.W.J. and Morris, R.S. (2005) Profiling the New Zealand thoroughbred racing industry. 2. Conditions interfering with training and racing. N. Z. Vet. J. 53, 164-164.
  • 2
    Dyson, P.K., Jackson, B.F., Pfeiffer, D.U. and Price, J.S. (2008) Days lost from training by two- and three-year-old Thoroughbred horses: a survey of seven UK training yards. Equine Vet. J. 40, 650-657.
  • 3
    Reed, S.R., Jackson, B.F., McIlwraith, C.W., Wright, I.M., Pilsworth, R., Knapp, S., Wood, J.L., Price, J.S. and Verheyen, K.L. (2012) Descriptive epidemiology of joint injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Equine Vet. J. 44, 13-19.
  • 4
    Barr, E.D., Pinchbeck, G.L., Clegg, P.D., Boyde, A. and Riggs, C.M. (2009) Post mortem evaluation of palmar osteochondral disease (traumatic osteochondrosis) of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet. J. 41, 366-371.
  • 5
    Pool, R.R. (1996) Pathologic manifestations of joint disease in the athletic horse. In: Joint Disease in the Horse, 1st edn., Eds: C.W. McIlwraith and G.W. Trotter , W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. pp 87-104.
  • 6
    Kawcak, C.E., McIlwraith, C.W., Norrdin, R.W., Park, R.D. and Steyn, P.S. (2000) Clinical effects of exercise on subchondral bone of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints in horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 1252-1258.
  • 7
    Arthur, R.M. (2003) North American Thoroughbred. In: Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse, Eds: M.W. Ross and S.J. Dyson , W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. pp 868-879.
  • 8
    Pilsworth, R.C. (2003) The European Thoroughbred. In: Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse, Eds: M.W. Ross and S.J. Dyson , W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. pp 879-894.
  • 9
    Powell, S.E. (2012) Low-field standing magnetic resonance imaging findings of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint of racing thoroughbreds with lameness localised to the region: a retrospective study of 131 horses. Equine Vet. J. 44, 169-177.
  • 10
    Trope, G.D., Anderson, G.A. and Whitton, R.C. (2011) Patterns of scintigraphic uptake in the fetlock joint of Thoroughbred racehorses and the effect of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the distal metacarpal/tarsal condyle on performance. Equine Vet. J. 43, 509-515.
  • 11
    Rasbash, J., Steele, F., Browne, W.J. and Goldstein, H. (2009) A User's Guide to MLwiN, Version 2.10. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, Bristol.
  • 12
    Parkin, T.D.H., Clegg, P.D., French, N.P., Proudman, C.J., Riggs, C.M., Singer, E.R., Webbon, P.M. and Morgan, K.L. (2006) Analysis of horse race videos to identify intra-race risk factors for fatal distal limb fracture. Prev. Vet. Med. 74, 44-55.
  • 13
    Swindlehurst, J.C., Parkin, T.D.H. and Morgan, K.L. (2005) Fatal conylar fractures in racehorses: associations with pathology and conformation. In: Proceedings of the 44th Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association, Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd, Newmarket. p 361.
  • 14
    Bailey, C.J., Reid, S.W., Hodgson, D.R. and Rose, R.J. (1999) Impact of injuries and disease on a cohort of two- and three-year-old thoroughbreds in training. Vet. Rec. 145, 487-493.
  • 15
    Ferris, D.J., Frisbie, D.D., McIlwraith, C.W. and Kawcak, C.E. (2011) Current joint therapy usage in equine practice: a survey of veterinarians 2009. Equine Vet. J. 43, 530-535.
  • 16
    McIlwraith, C.W. (2010) The use of intra-articular corticosteroids in the horse: what is known on a scientific basis? Equine Vet. J. 42, 563-571.
  • 17
    Whitlock, D., Garcia, T.C., Vallance, S.A. and Stover, S.M. (2012) Possible role of carpal hyperextension in superficial digital flexor tendinopathy. Equine Vet. J. 44, 559-563.
  • 18
    Tull, T.M. and Bramlage, L.R. (2011) Racing prognosis after cumulative stress-induced injury of the distal portion of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones in Thoroughbred racehorses: 55 cases (2000-2009). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 238, 1316-1322.
  • 19
    Boden, L. (2011) Clinical studies utilising ordinal data: pitfalls in the analysis and interpretation of clinical grading systems. Equine Vet. J. 43, 383-387.