DESCRIPTIVE CLINICAL REPORTS
Arthroscopic anatomy of the equine cervical articular process joints
Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013
© 2013 EVJ Ltd
Equine Veterinary Journal
Volume 46, Issue 3, pages 345–351, May 2014
How to Cite
Pepe, M., Angelone, M., Gialletti, R., Nannarone, S. and Beccati, F. (2014), Arthroscopic anatomy of the equine cervical articular process joints. Equine Veterinary Journal, 46: 345–351. doi: 10.1111/evj.12112
- Issue published online: 10 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 7 JUN 2013 02:39AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 DEC 2012
Fig S1: The introduction of a 2.7 mm arthroscopic sleeve into the C4–C5 cranioventral articular recess under ultrasound guidance. Head of the horse is to the left.
Fig S2: The introduction of a 2.7 mm arthroscopic sleeve into the C4–C5 cranioventral articular recess without ultrasound control. Two 18 gauge 38 mm needles were inserted perpendicularly to the skin to mark the cranial and caudal borders of the transverse process of the C4. Head of the horse is at the bottom.
Fig S3: Illustration of the cranioventral C3–C4 (A) and caudodorsal C4–C5 (B) APJs recesses with the arthroscopes inserted. The arthroscopic insertion in the C3–C4 cranioventral recess is orientated approximately 60–80° from the long axis of the neck in a craniocaudal direction, whereas the C4–C5 caudoventral recess is oriented in a 60–80° angle from the long axis of the neck in a caudocranial direction.
Video Clip S1: Videoclips from arthroscopic investigation of cranioventral C4–C5 APJ. The articular cartilage of either the cranial (right side) and caudal (left side) articular facets are observed. The examination of the synovial membrane and its villi was possible as well as its insertion at the articular facets.
Video Clip S2: Videoclips from arthroscopic investigation of the abaxial side of C5–C6 APJ. The arthroscope was inserted in the caudodorsal recess, advanced in the caudal to cranial direction and back. It is possible to visualise all the abaxial articular rim of the caudal and cranial articular processes plus the attachment of the joint capsule. A small osteophyte is evident on the caudal articular rim.
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