• 1
    Maddox, T.W., Clegg, P.D., Diggle, P.J., Wedley, A.L., Dawson, S., Pinchbeck, G.L. and Williams, N.J. (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Equine Vet. J. 44, 289-296.
  • 2
    Vo, A.T., van Duijkeren, E., Fluit, A.C. and Gaastra, W. (2007) Characteristics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from horses. Vet. Microbiol. 124, 248-255.
  • 3
    Maddox, T.W., Pinchbeck, G.L., Clegg, P.D., Wedley, A.L., Dawson, S. and Williams, N.J. (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 2: risk factors for faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in horses. Equine Vet. J. 44, 297-303.
  • 4
    Damborg, P., Marskar, P., Baptiste, K.E. and Guardabassi, L. (2012) Faecal shedding of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after hospital admission. Vet. Microbiol. 154, 298-304.
  • 5
    Dunowska, M., Morley, P.S., Traub-Dargatz, J.L., Hyatt, D.R. and Dargatz, D.A. (2006) Impact of hospitalization and antimicrobial drug administration on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 228, 1909-1917.
  • 6
    Marsh, P.S. and Palmer, J.E. (2001) Bacterial isolates from blood and their susceptibility patterns in critically ill foals: 543 cases (1991–1998). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 218, 1608-1610.
  • 7
    Henson, S. and Barton, M. (2001) Bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity patterns from septicemic neonatal foals: a 15 year retrospective study (1986–2000). Dorothy R. Havemeyer Foundation Neonatal Septicemia Workshop III.
  • 8
    Wilson, W.D., Durando, M.M. and Mihalyi, J.E. (1990) The bacteriology of septicaemia as a basis for antibiotic selection in neonatal foals. Proceedings of the 2nd International Veterinary Perinatology Conference. 20.
  • 9
    Russell, C.M., Axon, J.E., Blishen, A. and Begg, A.P. (2008) Blood culture isolates and antimicrobial sensitivities from 427 critically ill neonatal foals. Aust. Vet. J. 86, 266-271.
  • 10
    Brewer, B.D. and Koterba, A.M. (1990) Bacterial isolates and susceptibility patterns in foals in a neonatal intensive care unit. Comp. Cont. Educ. Pract. Vet. 12, 1773-1780.
  • 11
    Hollis, A.R., Wilkins, P.A., Palmer, J.E. and Boston, R.C. (2008) Bacteremia in equine neonatal diarrhea: a retrospective study (1990–2007). J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22, 1203-1209.
  • 12
    Sanchez, L.C., Giguère, S. and Lester, G.D. (2008) Factors associated with survival of neonatal foals with bacteremia and racing performance of surviving Thoroughbreds: 423 cases (1982–2007). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 233, 1446-1452.
  • 13
    CLSI (2012) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twentysecond Informational Supplement. M100-S22, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne.
  • 14
    CLSI (2008) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard, 3rd edn., M31-A3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne.
  • 15
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) WHO list of Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA) - 3rd Revision. 2013.
  • 16
    Bowen, M. (2013) Antimicrobial stewardship: time for change. Equine Vet. J. 45, 127-129.
  • 17
    European Food Safety Authority (2012) Technical specifications for the analysis and reporting of data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the European Union Summary Report. EFSA J. 10, 2587-2639.
  • 18
    Morley, P.S., Apley, M.D., Besser, T.E., Burney, D.P., Fedorka-Cray, P.J., Papich, M.G., Traub-Dargatz, J.L. and Weese, J.S. (2005) Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 19, 617-629.
  • 19
    Davenport, C.L., Boston, R.C. and Richardson, D.W. (2001) Effects of enrofloxacin and magnesium deficiency on matrix metabolism in equine articular cartilage. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62, 160-166.
  • 20
    Vivrette, S.L., Bostian, A., Bermingham, E. and Papich, M.G. (2001) Quinolone-induced arthropathy in neonatal foals. Proc. Am. Ass. Equine Practnrs. 47, 376-377.
  • 21
    Amyes, S.G.B. (2007) Enterococci and streptococci. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 29, S43-S52.
  • 22
    Hammerum, A.M. (2012) Enterococci of animal origin and their significance for public health. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 18, 619-625.
  • 23
    Tenover, F.C. (2006) Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am. J. Med. 119, S3-S10.
  • 24
    Ensink, J.M., Bosch, G. and Van Duijkeren, E. (2005) Clinical efficacy of prophylactic administration of trimethoprim/ sulfadiazine in a Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection model in ponies. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 28, 45-49.
  • 25
    Ensink, J.M., Smit, J.A.H. and Van Duijkeren, E. (2003) Clinical efficacy of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine and procaine penicillin G in a Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection model in ponies. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 247-252.
  • 26
    Madigan, J.E. (1997) Method for preventing neonatal septicaemia, the leading cause of death in the neonatal foal. Proc. Am. Ass. Equine Practnrs. 43, 17-19.
  • 27
    Schwarz, S., Silley, P., Simjee, S., Woodford, N., van Duijkeren, E., Johnson, A.P. and Gaastra, W. (2010) Editorial: assessing the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria obtained from animals. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 65, 601-604.
  • 28
    Orsini, J.A., Benson, C.E., Spencer, P.A. and Van Miller, E. (1989) Resistance to gentamicin and amikacin of Gram-negative organisms isolated from horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50, 923-925.
  • 29
    Murdoch, D.R., Mirrett, S., Harrell, L.J., Monahan, J.S. and Reller, L.B. (2002) Sequential emergence of antibiotic resistance in enterococcal bloodstream isolates over 25 years. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46, 3676-3678.
  • 30
    Ubeda, C., Taur, Y., Jenq, R.R., Equinda, M.J., Son, T., Samstein, M., Viale, A., Socci, N.D., Van Den Brink, M.R.M., Kamboj, M. and Pamer, E.G. (2010) Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus domination of intestinal microbiota is enabled by antibiotic treatment in mice and precedes bloodstream invasion in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 120, 4332-4341.