• 1
    Olsén, L., Ingvast-Larsson, C., Broström, H., Larsson, P. and Tjälve, H. (2007) Clinical signs and etiology of adverse reactions to procaine benzylpenicillin and sodium/potassium benzylpenicillin in horses. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 30, 201-207.
  • 2
    Båverud, V., Gustafsson, A., Franklin, A., Aspán, A. and Gunnarsson, A. (2003) Clostridium difficile: prevalence in horses and environment, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Equine Vet. J. 35, 465-471.
  • 3
    Båverud, V., Gustafsson, A., Franklin, A., Lindholm, A. and Gunnarsson, A. (1997) Clostridium difficile associated with acute colitis in mature horses treated with antibiotics. Equine Vet. J. 29, 279-284.
  • 4
    Barr, B.S., Waldridge, B.M., Morresey, P.R., Reed, S.M., Clark, C., Belgrave, R., Donecker, J.M. and Weigel, D.J. (2013) Antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea in three equine referral practices. Equine Vet. J. 45, 154-158.
  • 5
    Amato-Gauci, A. and Ammon, A. (2007) The First European Communicable Disease Epidemiological Report, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm.
  • 6
    Loncaric, I., Künzel, F., Licka, T., Simhofer, H., Spergser, J. and Rosengarten, R. (2014) Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses. Vet. Microbiol. 168, 381-387.
  • 7
    Theelen, M.J., Wilson, W.D., Edman, J.M., Magdesian, K.G. and Kass, P.H. (2014) Temporal trends in prevalence of bacteria isolated from foals with sepsis: 1979–2010. Equine Vet. J. 46, 169-173.
  • 8
    Mallardo, K., Nizza, S., Fiorito, F., Pagnini, U., De Martino, L. and Donnarumma, G. (2013) A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 3, 169-173.
  • 9
    Singh, B.R. (2009) Prevalence of vancomycin resistance and multiple drug resistance in enterococci in equids in North India. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 3, 498-503.
  • 10
    Van den Eede, A., Martens, A., Lipinska, U., Struelens, M., Deplano, A., Denis, O., Haesebrouck, F., Gasthuys, F. and Hermans, K. (2009) High occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in equine nasal samples. Vet. Microbiol. 133, 138-144.
  • 11
    Herdan, C.L., Acke, E., Dicken, M., Archer, R.M., Forsyth, S.F., Gee, E.K. and Pauwels, F.E. (2012) Multi-drug-resistant Enterococcus spp. as a cause of non-responsive septic synovitis in three horses. N. Z. Vet. J. 60, 297-304.
  • 12
    Van den Eede, A., Hermans, K., Van den Abeele, A., Floré, K., Dewulf, J., Vanderhaeghen, W., Crombé, F., Butaye, P., Gasthuys, F., Haesebrouck, F. and Martens, A. (2012) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the skin of long-term hospitalised horses. Vet. J. 193, 408-411.
  • 13
    Williams, A., Christley, R.M., McKane, S.A., Roberts, V.L., Clegg, P.D. and Williams, N.J. (2013) Antimicrobial resistance changes in enteric Escherichia coli of horses during hospitalisation: resistance profiling of isolates. Vet. J. 195, 121-126.
  • 14
    Johns, I., Verheyen, K., Good, L. and Rycroft, A. (2012) Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from horses treated with antimicrobials: a longitudinal study in hospitalised and non-hospitalised horses. Vet. Microbiol. 159, 381-389.
  • 15
    Maddox, T.W., Pinchbeck, G.L., Clegg, P.D., Wedley, A.L., Dawson, S. and Williams, N.J. (2012) Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 2: risk factors for faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in horses. Equine Vet. J. 44, 297-303.
  • 16
    Dunowska, M., Morley, P.S., Traub-Dargatz, J.L., Hyatt, D.R. and Dargatz, D.A. (2006) Impact of hospitalization and antimicrobial drug administration on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 228, 1909-1917.
  • 17
    Freite-Moran, L., Aronsson, B., Manz, C., Gyssens, I.C., So, A.D., Monnet, D.L. and Cars, O. (2011) Critical shortage of new antibiotics in development against multidrug-resistant bacteria – time to react is now. Drug Resist. Updat. 14, 118-124.
  • 18
    Esposito, S. (1999) Is single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis sufficient for any surgical procedure? J. Chemother. 11, 556-564.
  • 19
    Imahara, S. and Nathens, A.B. (2003) Antimicrobial strategies in surgical critical care. Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 9, 268-291.
  • 20
    Weese, J.S. and Cruz, A. (2009) Retrospective study of perioperative antimicrobial use practices in horses undergoing elective arthroscopic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital. Can. Vet. J. 50, 185-188.
  • 21
    Traub-Dargatz, J.L., George, J.L., Dargatz, D.A., Morley, P.S., Southwood, L.L. and Tillotson, K. (2002) Survey of complications and antimicrobial use in equine patients at veterinary teaching hospitals that underwent surgery because of colic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 220, 1359-1365.
  • 22
    Burke, J.F. (1961) The effective period of preventive antibiotic action in experimental incisions and dermal lesions. Surgery 50, 161-168.
  • 23
    Dellinger, E.P. (2007) Prophylactic antibiotics: administration and timing before operation are more important than administration after operation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44, 928-930.
  • 24
    Classen, D.C., Evans, R.S., Pestotnik, S.L., Horn, S.D., Menlove, R.L. and Burke, J.P. (1992) The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 326, 281-286.
  • 25
    Koch, C.G., Li, L., Hixson, E., Tang, A., Gordon, S., Longworth, D., Phillips, S., Blackstone, E. and Henderson, J.M. (2013) Is it time to refine? An exploration and simulation of optimal antibiotic timing in general surgery. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 217, 628-635.
  • 26
    Bratzler, D.W., Dellinger, E.P., Olsen, K.M., Perl, T.M., Auwaerter, P.G., Bolon, M.K., Fish, D.N., Napolitano, L.M., Sawyer, R.G., Slain, D., Steinberg, J.P. and Weinstein, R.A. (2013) Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 70, 195-283.
  • 27
    Goede, W.J., Lovely, J.K., Thompson, R.L. and Cima, R.R. (2013) Assessment of prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with surgical site infections. Hosp. Pharm. 48, 560-567.
  • 28
    Abdel-Aziz, A., El-Menyar, A., Al-Thani, H., Zarour, A., Parchani, A., Asim, M., El-Enany, R., Al-Tamimi, H. and Latifi, R. (2013) Adherence of surgeons to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines in a tertiary general hospital in a rapidly developing country. Adv. Pharmacol. Sci 2013, Article ID 842593.
  • 29
    Harbarth, S., Samore, M.H., Lichtenberg, D. and Carmeli, Y. (2000) Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after cardiovascular surgery and its effect on surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Circulation 101, 2916-2921.
  • 30
    Belagali, Y., Mc, A., Thejeswi, P., Sheetal, D.U., Bhagwath, V., Shenoy, K.A., Chowta, M. and Acharya, S.D. (2013) A critical evaluation and comparison of antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective surgeries across three hospitals. J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 7, 1073-1077.
  • 31
    Fernández, A.H., Monge, V. and Garcinuño, M.A. (2001) Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis: effect in postoperative infections. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 17, 369-374.
  • 32
    Ishibashi, K., Ishida, H., Kuwabara, K., Ohsawa, T., Okada, N., Yokoyama, M. and Kumamoto, K. (2014) Short-term intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis for elective rectal cancer surgery: results of a prospective randomized non-inferiority trial . Surg. Today 44, 716-722.
  • 33
    Bidkar, V.G., Jalisatigi, R.R., Naik, A.S., Shanbag, R.D., Rashmi, S., Poorvi, V., Sharma, P.V. and Hegde, H.V. (2013) Perioperative only versus extended antimicrobial usage in tympanomastoid surgery: a randomized trial. Laryngoscope. doi: 10.1002/lary.24544. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 34
    Aberg, C. and Thore, M. (1991) Single versus triple dose antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective abdominal surgery and the impact on bacterial ecology. J. Hosp. Infect. 18, 149-154.
  • 35
    Schein, M., Assalia, A. and Bachus, H. (1994) Minimal antibiotic therapy after emergency abdominal surgery: a prospective study. Br. J. Surg. 81, 989-991.
  • 36
    Bansal, V., Altermatt, S., Nadal, D. and Berger, C. (2012) Lack of benefit of preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with acute appendicitis: a prospective cohort study. Infection 40, 635-641.
  • 37
    Sharma, N., Garg, P.K., Hadke, N.S. and Choudhary, D. (2010) Role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and risk factors for surgical site infection: a randomized controlled trial. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt) 11, 367-370.
  • 38
    Brown, D.C., Conzemius, M.G., Shofer, F. and Swann, H. (1997) Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infections in dogs and cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 210, 1302-1306.
  • 39
    Freeman, K.D., Southwood, L.L., Lane, J., Lindborg, S. and Aceto, H.W. (2012) Post operative infection, pyrexia and perioperative antimicrobial drug use in surgical colic patients. Equine Vet. J. 44, 476-481.