SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Allen, G. A., and J. A. Antos. 1993. Sex ratio variation in the dioecious shrub Oemleria cerasiformis. Am. Nat. 141:537553.
  • Barrett, S. C. H., and J. D. Thomson. 1982. Spatial pattern, floral sex-ratios, and fecundity in dioecious Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). Can. J. Bot. 60:16621670.
  • Barrett, S. C. H., S. B. Yakimowski, D. L. Field, and M. Pickup. 2010. Ecological genetics of sex ratios in plant populations. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 365:25492557.
  • Bawa, K. S., C. R. Keegan, and R. H. Voss. 1982. Sexual dimorphism in Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Evolution 36:371378.
  • Bergero, R., and D. Charlesworth. 2011. Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10-million-year-old plant sex chromosome system. Curr. Biol. 17:14701474.
  • Bulmer, M. G., and P. D. Taylor. 1980. Dispersal and the sex ratio. Nature 284:448449.
  • Charlesworth, D. 2002. Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes. Heredity 88:94101.
  • Charnov, E. L. 1982. The theory of sex allocation. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton , New Jersey , U. S. A .
  • Cipollini, M. L., and D. F. Whigham. 1994. Sexual dimorphism and cost of reproduction in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Am. J. Bot. 81:6575.
  • Correns, C. 1922. Sex determination and numerical proportion of genders in common sorrel (Rumex acetosa) (translated from German). Biol. Zentralblatt 42:465480.
  • Darwin, C. R. 1871. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. John Murray, London , U. K .
  • Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. John Murray , London , U. K .
  • de Jong, T. J., and P. G. L. Klinkhamer. 2005. Evolutionary ecology of plant reproductive strategies. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K .
  • de Jong, T. J., F. H. D. Van Batenburg, and J. Van Dijk. 2002. Seed sex ratio in dioecious plants depends on relative dispersal of pollen and seeds: an example using a chessboard simulation model. J. Evol. Biol. 15:373379.
  • Delph, L. F. 1999. Sexual dimorphism in life history. Pp. 149174 in M. A. Geber, T. E. Dawson, and L. F. Delph, eds. Gender and sexual dimorphism in flowering plants. Springer Verlag, Berlin .
  • Edwards, A. W. F. 2000. Carl Düsing (1884) on the regulation of the sex-ratio. Theor. Popul. Biol. 58:255257.
  • Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring (1977). Ecology, sexual selection and mating systems. Science 197:215223.
  • Eppley, S. M., M. L. Stanton, and R. K. Grosberg. 1998. Intrapopulation sex ratio variation in the salt marsh grass Distichlis spicata. Am. Nat. 152:659670.
  • Espirito-Santo, M. M., B. G. Madeira, F. S. Neves, M. L. Faria, M. Fagundes, and G. W. Fernandes. 2003. Sexual differences in reproductive phenology and their consequences for the demography of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), a dioecious tropical shrub. Ann. Bot. 91:1319.
  • Felsenstein, J. 1985. Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am. Nat. 126:125.
  • Fisher, R. A. 1930. The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford Univ. Press, London , U. K .
  • Freckleton, R. P., P. H. Harvey, and M. Pagel. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative data: a test and review of evidence. Am. Nat. 160:712726.
  • Geber, M. A., T. E. Dawson, and L. F. Delph. 1999. Gender and sexual dimorphism in flowering plants. Springer, Heidelburg , Germany .
  • Hardy, I. C. W. 2002. Sex ratios: concepts and research methods. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U. K .
  • Harris, M. S., and J. R. Pannell. 2008. Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 275:25952602.
  • Harvey, P. H., and M. D. Pagel. 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U. K.
  • Kleyer, M., R. M. Bekker, I. C. Knevel, J. P. Bakker, K. Thompson, M. Sonnenschein, P. Poschlod, J. M. Van Groenendael, L. Klimeš, J. Klimešová, et al. 2008. The LEDA Traitbase: a database of life-history traits of the Northwest European flora. J. Ecol. 96:12661274.
  • Klimeš, L., J. Klimešová, R. Hendriks, and J. van Groenendael. 1997. Clonal plant architecture: a comparative analysis of form and function in H. de Kroon, and J. van Groenendael, eds. The ecology and evolution of clonal plants. Backhuys, Leiden .
  • Klimešová, J., and L. Klimeš. 2010. Clo-Pla3—database of clonal growth of plants from Central Europe. http://clopla.butbn.cas.cz/.
  • Kvarnemo, C., and Ahnesjo, I. 2002. Operational sex ratios and mating competition. Pp. 366382 in I. C. W. Hardy, ed. Sex ratios: concepts and research methods. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U. K .
  • Lloyd. 1982. Selection of combined versus separate sexes in seed plants. Am. Nat. 120:571585.
  • Lloyd, D. G. 1973. Sex-ratios in sexually dimorphic Umbelliferae. Heredity 31:239249.
  • Lloyd, D. G. 1974. Female-predominant sex ratios in angiosperms. Heredity 32:3544.
  • Lloyd, D. G., and C. J. Webb. 1977. Secondary sex characters in plants. Bot. Rev. 43:177216.
  • Maddison, W. P., and D. R. Maddison. 2011. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75.
  • Mayhew, P. J., and I. Pen. 2002. Comparative analysis of sex ratios. Pp. 132156 in I. C. W. Hardy, ed. Sex ratios: concepts and research methods. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U. K .
  • Ming, R., A. Bendahmane, and S. S. Renner. 2011. Sex chromosomes in land plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 62:485514.
  • Obeso, J. R. 2002. The costs of reproduction in plants. New Phytol. 155:321348.
  • Paradis, E., and J. Claude. 2002. Analysis of comparative data using generalized estimating equations. J. Theor. Biol. 218:175185.
  • Paradis, E., J. Claude, and K. Strimmer. 2004. APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20:289290.
  • Popp, J. W., and J. A. Reinartz. 1988. Sexual dimorphism in biomass allocation and clonal growth of Xanthoxylum americanum. Am. J. Bot. 75:17321741.
  • Renner, S. S., and R. E. Ricklefs. 1995. Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. Am. J. Bot. 82:596606.
  • Rottenberg, A. 1998. Sex ratio and gender stability in the dioecious plants of Israel. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 128:137148.
  • Sakai, A. K., and T. A. Burris. 1985. Growth in male and female aspen clones: a twenty-five-year longitudinal study. Ecology 66:19211927.
  • Shelton, A. O. 2010a. The origin of female-biased sex ratios in intertidal seagrasses (Phyllospadix spp.). Ecology 91:13801390.
  • Shelton, A. O. 2010b. The ecological and evolutionary drivers of female-biased sex ratios: two-sex models of perennial seagrasses. Am. Nat. 175:302315.
  • Sinclair, J. P., J. Emlen, and D. C. Freeman. 2012. Biased sex ratios in plants: theory and trends. Bot. Rev. 78:6386.
  • Smith, B. W. 1963. Mechanism of sex determination in Rumex hastatulus. Genetics 48:12651288.
  • Smith, B. W. 1969. Evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in Rumex. Chromosomes Today 2:172182.
  • Sokal, R., and F. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry. W.H Freeman, New York .
  • Stehlik, I., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2005. Mechanisms governing sex-ratio variation in dioecious Rumex nivalis. Evolution 59:814825.
  • Stehlik, I., P. Kron, S. C. H. Barrett, and B. C. Husband. 2007. Sexing pollen reveals female bias in a dioecious plant. New Phytol. 175:185194.
  • Stevens, P. F. 2001. Angiosperm phylogeny website. Version 9, June 2008.
  • Taylor, D. R. 1999. Genetics of sex ratio variation among natural populations of a dioecious plant. Evolution 53:5562.
  • Vamosi, J. C., S. P. Otto, and S. C. H. Barrett. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the ecological correlates of dioecy in angiosperms. J. Evol. Biol. 16:10061018.
  • Webb, C. O., and M. J. Donoghue. 2005. Phylomatic: tree assembly for applied phylogenetics. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5:181183.
  • Wheelwright, N. T., and B. A. Logan. 2004. Previous-year reproduction reduces photosynthetic capacity and slows lifetime growth in females of a neotropical tree. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101:80518055.
  • Wilson, K., and I. C. W. Hardy. 2002. Statistical analysis of sex ratios: an introduction Pp. 5092 in I. C. W. Hardy, ed. Sex ratios: concepts and research methods. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U. K .