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Keywords:

  • Bayesian variable selection regression;
  • genome-wide association mapping;
  • morphology;
  • plant-insect interactions;
  • population genetics;
  • speciation

Genome divergence during speciation is a dynamic process that is affected by various factors, including the genetic architecture of barriers to gene flow. Herein we quantitatively describe aspects of the genetic architecture of two sets of traits, male genitalic morphology and oviposition preference, that putatively function as barriers to gene flow between the butterfly species Lycaeides idas and L. melissa. Our analyses are based on unmapped DNA sequence data and a recently developed Bayesian regression approach that includes variable selection and explicit parameters for the genetic architecture of traits. A modest number of nucleotide polymorphisms explained a small to large proportion of the variation in each trait, and average genetic variant effects were nonnegligible. Several genetic regions were associated with variation in multiple traits or with trait variation within- and among-populations. In some instances, genetic regions associated with trait variation also exhibited exceptional genetic differentiation between species or exceptional introgression in hybrids. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that divergent selection on male genitalia has contributed to heterogeneous genetic differentiation, and that both sets of traits affect fitness in hybrids. Although these results are encouraging, we highlight several difficulties related to understanding the genetics of speciation.