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FilenameFormatSizeDescription
evo12069-sup-0001-appendix_S1.pdf224KAppendix S1. The joint evolution of dispersal and dormancy in a metapopulation with local extinctions and kin competition.
evo12069-sup-0002-figure_S1.pdf3956KFigure S1. Evolutionary dynamics of the traits in a large metapopulation with nd = 2,000 demes, each of size N = 5. This figure results from a single run of the individual-based simulation model described in the Supporting Information. Other parameter values are: cz = 0.2, cd = 0.025, e = 0 (no extinction). The metapopulation was initially monomorphic, with all trait values fixed to 0.2. The red dashed lines give the evolutionarily stable trait value, which is also indicated by an arrow in each graph. The first 40,000 generations are shown. The rate of dormancy for philopatric seeds converge more slowly towards the equilibrium, as compared to the rate of dispersal. This suggests that the selection gradient is weaker for the rate of dormancy for philopatric seeds than for the rate of dispersal.
evo12069-sup-0003-figure_S2.pdf73KFigure S2. (A) Evolutionarily stable rate of unconditional dormancy as a function of the extinction rate for different population sizes (N = 1 and N = 10), with cz = 0.5, cd = 0.2, and z = 0.2. (B) Evolutionarily stable rate of unconditional dormancy as a function of the (fixed) dispersal rate for different population sizes (N = 1 and N = 10), with cz = 0.5, cd = 0.2, and e = 0.4. In both graphs, the plain lines result from the numerical evaluation of our analytical model (equation 2). The dots and error bars give the mean values of the trait from individual-based simulations (see the appendix S1 in the Supporting Information). The dashed lines provide the results of individual-based simulation for 50 age classes in the seed bank.
evo12069-sup-0004-figure_S3.pdf81KFigure S3. Joint evolutionarily stable rates of dispersal and dormancy. The red lines provide the results for the model with conditional dormancy of philopatric seeds (d*), and the blue lines those with unconditional dormancy (D*). (A) Joint evolutionarily stable rates of dispersal and dormancy, as a function of the cost of dispersal (cz), which varies from 0.005 to 0.98, for a single age class in the bank, with local extinctions (e = 0.2), N = 10 and cd = 0.05 (the results were obtained from the numerical evaluation of our analytical model in equation 2). The dots and error bars give the mean values of the trait from individual-based simulations. (B) As in (A) for 50 age classes in the bank, as obtained from stochastic individual-based simulations (see the appendix S1 in the Supporting Information). (C) Joint evolutionarily stable rates of dispersal and dormancy, as a function of the cost of dormancy (cd), which varies from 0.01 to 0.47 for a single age class in the bank, with local extinctions (e = 0.2), N = 10 and cz = 0.5 (the results were obtained from the numerical evaluation of our analytical model in equation 2). (D) As in (C) for 50 age classes in the bank, as obtained from stochastic individual-based simulations.
evo12069-sup-0005-figure_S4.pdf226KFigure S4. An example of bistable evolutionary dynamics for the joint evolution of dispersal and unconditional dormancy, with N = 1, cd = 0.05, cz = 0.252 and e = 0 (no extinction). In this gradient plot, the arrows show the direction of selection acting on dispersal and dormancy. As can be seen from the plot, two out of the three joint equilibria are stable (equilibria A and C), while equilibrium B is unstable, indicating that the evolutionary endpoint may depend upon initial conditions.
evo12069-sup-0006-figure_S5.pdf3001KFigure S5. Region plot of parameter space, where evolutionary bistable rates of unconditional dormancy occur (black area), with N = 1 and e = 0 (no extinction). Light grey: the ES rate of dormancy is nil. Dark grey: a single joint strategy for dispersal and dormancy exists.

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