• Critique;
  • evolution of insect flight;
  • Neoptera;
  • Plecoptera;
  • surface skimming

Benner, Knecht, and Engel have replied to my critique of their interpretation of a Carboniferous trace fossil produced by an insect at the edge of water. Here I respond by pointing out that their reiterated scenario still requires mutually exclusive paths of motion and I show that their assertions of methodological shortcomings are tangential and lack merit. Overall, this discussion provides an opportunity to examine in greater detail competing hypothesis about behaviors and taxonomic identity of the trace maker, and relevance thereof to competing theories regarding early events in the evolution of pterygote insects.