These authors contributed equally to this work.
ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, AND DIVERSIFICATION OF CLEPTOPARASITIC LINEAGES IN LONG-TONGUED BEES
Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2013
© 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 67, Issue 10, pages 2982–2998, October 2013
How to Cite
Litman, J. R., Praz, C. J., Danforth, B. N., Griswold, T. L. and Cardinal, S. (2013), ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, AND DIVERSIFICATION OF CLEPTOPARASITIC LINEAGES IN LONG-TONGUED BEES. Evolution, 67: 2982–2998. doi: 10.1111/evo.12161
- Issue online: 3 OCT 2013
- Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 17 MAY 2013 03:00PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 27 FEB 2013
- National Science Foundation. Grant Number: DEB-0742998
- Swiss National Science Foundation. Grant Number: PBEZP3-122970
- Behavioral innovation;
- convergent evolution;
- cuckoo bees;
- Emery's Rule;
- modes of cleptoparasitism
The evolution of parasitic behavior may catalyze the exploitation of new ecological niches yet also binds the fate of a parasite to that of its host. It is thus not clear whether evolutionary transitions from free-living organism to parasite lead to increased or decreased rates of diversification. We explore the evolution of brood parasitism in long-tongued bees and find decreased rates of diversification in eight of 10 brood parasitic clades. We propose a pathway for the evolution of brood parasitic strategy and find that a strategy in which a closed host nest cell is parasitized and the host offspring is killed by the adult parasite represents an obligate first step in the appearance of a brood parasitic lineage; this ultimately evolves into a strategy in which an open host cell is parasitized and the host offspring is killed by a specialized larval instar. The transition to parasitizing open nest cells expanded the range of potential hosts for brood parasitic bees and played a fundamental role in the patterns of diversification seen in brood parasitic clades. We address the prevalence of brood parasitic lineages in certain families of bees and examine the evolution of brood parasitism in other groups of organisms.