SEASONALITY MAINTAINS ALTERNATIVE LIFE-HISTORY PHENOTYPES
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2013
© 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 67, Issue 11, pages 3145–3160, November 2013
How to Cite
Kivelä, S. M., Välimäki, P. and Gotthard, K. (2013), SEASONALITY MAINTAINS ALTERNATIVE LIFE-HISTORY PHENOTYPES. Evolution, 67: 3145–3160. doi: 10.1111/evo.12181
- Issue published online: 23 OCT 2013
- Article first published online: 3 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 13 JUN 2013 02:15PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 15 JAN 2013
- Ella and Georg
- Ehrnrooth foundation
- Alternative developmental pathways;
- mortality risk;
Many organisms express discrete alternative phenotypes (polyphenisms) in relation to predictable environmental variation. However, the evolution of alternative life-history phenotypes remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolution of alternative life histories in seasonal environments by using temperate insects as a model system. Temperate insects express alternative developmental pathways of diapause and direct development, the induction of a certain pathway affecting fitness through its life-history correlates. We develop a methodologically novel and holistic simulation model and optimize development time, growth rate, body size, reproductive effort, and adult life span simultaneously in both developmental pathways. The model predicts that direct development should be associated with shorter development time (duration of growth) and adult life span, higher growth rate and reproductive effort, smaller body size as well as lower fecundity compared to the diapause pathway, because the two generations divide the available time unequally. These predictions are consistent with many empirical data. Our analysis shows that seasonality alone can explain the evolution of alternative life histories.