Disclaimer: Supplementary materials have been peer-reviewed but not copyedited.


Table S1. Phenotypic data, including notes on compiling the data set.

Table S2. Scaling parameters for (a) all cetaceans and (b) odontocetes only.

Table S3. Ancestral state reconstructions.

Table S4. Changes in phenotypic traits during (a) early cetacean evolution, (b) early odontocete evolution, and (c) extant cetacean evolution.

Table S5. Tests of directionality excluding selected taxa.

Table S6. Ancestral states of key nodes excluding selected taxa.

Table S7. Estimating extinct species traits.

Table S8. Measurements and body size estimates for selected fossil cetaceans and raoellids.


Figure S1. Scatterplots of ancestral state estimates made with and without fossil data for (a) body mass, (b) brain mass, and (c) encephalization quotient.

Figure S2. Posterior distribution of ancestral state reconstructions for node 1, the last common ancestor of Cetacea and Hippopotamidae.

Figure S3. Correlations between empirical and estimated data for extinct species traits.

Figure S4. Regression between changes in cetacean brain and body mass.

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