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Figure SA1. The relationship between body color traits and standard length (SL) for male (triangle symbols and dashed lines) and female (filled circles and solid lines) Gambusia hubbsi in low-predation (gray symbols and lines) and high-predation (black symbols and lines) blue holes.

Figure SA2. Illustration of strong sexual dimorphism in body shape in Gambusia hubbsi (open circles: females, filled circles: males; data from Riesch et al., unpubl. ms.).

Figure SB1. Overview of the study area on northern Andros Island, The Bahamas (inset), with locations of all sampled blue holes.

Figure SB2. Representative background water color and corresponding a* and b* color values (top) and representative male G. hubbsi (bottom) from each study site (top panel: low-predation sites; bottom panel: high-predation sites).

Figure SB3. Thin-plate spline transformation grids illustrating morphological divergence between predation regimes in male G. hubbsi inhabiting blue holes on Andros Island, The Bahamas, based on analysis of 115 males from 10 blue holes included in this study (observed variation depicted along d, lines drawn to aid interpretation).

Figure SB4. Relationships between population means for four body color variables and environmental variation/individual condition for male Gambusia hubbsi in low-predation (open symbols and dashed lines) and high-predation (filled symbols and solid lines) blue holes.

Table SA1. Summary of results from linear mixed models testing for sexual dimorphism in Gambusia hubbsi body color.

Table SA2. Summary of results from linear mixed models testing for divergence in female Gambusia hubbsi body color between high- and low-predation blue holes.

Table SA3. Summary of sex differences in body size in Gambusia hubbsi inhabiting blue holes (data from Riesch et al. 2013).

Table SB1. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on mtDNA.

Table SB2. Sample sizes for males examined in the common-garden experiment.

Table SC1. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin size of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC2. Principal components analysis of gonopodium size of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC3. Principal components analysis of caudal-fin size of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC4. Principal components analysis of blue-hole background habitat color.

Table SC5. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin a* coloration of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC6. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin b* coloration of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC7. Principal components analysis of anal-fin a* coloration of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC8. Principal components analysis of anal-fin b* coloration of Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SC9. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin coloration of lab-reared Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD1. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin R:G coloration of wild-caught Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD2. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin G:B coloration of wild-caught Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD3. Principal components analysis of anal-fin R:G coloration of wild-caught Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD4. Principal components analysis of anal-fin G:B coloration of wild-caught Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD5. Principal components analysis of dorsal-fin coloration of lab-reared Gambusia hubbsi males.

Table SD6. Summary of univariate general linear mixed models examining body color variation.

Table SD7. Results from a linear mixed-model (treating population as a random effect) evaluating divergence in dorsal-fin color (PC1) of male Gambusia hubbsi from two high- and two low-predation blue holes from Andros Island, The Bahamas, when kept or reared under common conditions in the lab (i.e., Birth Status).

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