A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex role reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, nonpregnant males, pregnant males, and their offspring. An FST comparison of allele frequencies among these groups reveals 47 genomic regions putatively experiencing sexual selection, as well as 468 regions showing a signature of differential viability selection between males and females. A complementary likelihood ratio test identifies similar patterns in the data as the FST analysis. Sexual selection and viability selection both tend to favor the rare alleles in the population. Ultimately, we conclude that genome-wide selection components analysis can be a useful tool to complement other approaches in the effort to pinpoint genome-level targets of selection in the wild.